disease vectors
Recently Published Documents





2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Attaullah ◽  
I. Ullah ◽  
M. Ali ◽  
F. Maula ◽  
I. Ilahi ◽  

Abstract Odonates are important biological control agents for the control of insect pests and insect disease vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan from March to October 2019. A total of 200 specimens of odonates were collected from diverse habitats. The collected specimens of the order Odonata belonged to 5 families, three families of suborder Anisoptera namely Libellulidae, Gomphidae and Aeshnidae while two families of suborder Zygoptera (Chlorocyphidae and Coenagrionidae). The specimens were categorized into 12 genera and 22 species. Libellulidae was the dominant family (n = 138) accounting for 69% of the odonate fauna. Orthetrum was the dominant genus (n = 73) of suborder Anisoptera accounting for 36.5% of the odonate fauna. The least dominant genera were Anax, Paragomphus and Rhyothemis (n = 5 each) accounting each for 2.5% of the odonate fauna. In Zygoptera, the dominant genus was Ceriagrion (12.5%) and the least dominant genus was Ischnura (6%). Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) was the most abundant odonate species in the study area recorded from all surveyed habitats. Shannon Diversity Index (H) was 2.988 and Simpson Diversity Index (D) was 0.95 for the collected odonate fauna. The highest abundance of Odonata was recorded in August, September and May while no odonate species were recorded in January, February, November and December. Lotic water bodies were the most suitable habitats with abundant odonate fauna. Anax immaculifrons (Rambur, 1842) was the largest sized odonate species having a wingspan of 53.2±1.63 mm and body length of 56.3 ± 0.4 mm. The present study shows the status of odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan in diverse habitats and seasonsonal variation throughout the year. Further work is recommended to bridge the gaps in the existing literature.

2022 ◽  
Elizabeth A. Freeman ◽  
Elizabeth J. Carlton ◽  
Sara Paull ◽  
Samuel Dadzie ◽  
Andrea Buchwald

In a rapidly urbanizing region such as West Africa, Aedes mosquitoes pose an emerging threat of infectious disease that is compounded by limited vector surveillance. Citizen science has been proposed as a way to fill surveillance gaps by training local residents to collect and share information on disease vectors. Increasing citizen science efforts can begin to bridge the gaps in our current knowledge of Aedes distribution while engaging locals with mosquito control and public health efforts. Understanding the distribution of disease vectors in West Africa can inform researchers and public health officials on where to conduct disease surveillance and focus public health interventions. We aimed to compare citizen science data to published literature observations of Aedes mosquitoes and to quantify how incorporating citizen science changes our understanding of Aedes mosquito distribution in West Africa. We utilized citizen science data collected through NASAs GLOBE Observer mobile phone application and data from a previously published literature review on Aedes mosquito distribution to examine the contribution of citizen science to understanding the distribution of Ae. aegypti in West Africa using Maximum Entropy modeling. Combining citizen science and literature-derived observations improved the fit of the model compared to models created by each data source alone, but did not alleviate location bias within the models, likely due to lack of widespread observations. Understanding Ae. aegypti distribution will require greater investment in Aedes mosquito surveillance in the region, and citizen science should be utilized as a tool in this mission to increase the reach of surveillance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Bhagyashree Kaduskar ◽  
Raja Babu Singh Kushwah ◽  
Ankush Auradkar ◽  
Annabel Guichard ◽  
Menglin Li ◽  

AbstractA recurring target-site mutation identified in various pests and disease vectors alters the voltage gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene (often referred to as knockdown resistance or kdr) to confer resistance to commonly used insecticides, pyrethroids and DDT. The ubiquity of kdr mutations poses a major global threat to the continued use of insecticides as a means for vector control. In this study, we generate common kdr mutations in isogenic laboratory Drosophila strains using CRISPR/Cas9 editing. We identify differential sensitivities to permethrin and DDT versus deltamethrin among these mutants as well as contrasting physiological consequences of two different kdr mutations. Importantly, we apply a CRISPR-based allelic-drive to replace a resistant kdr mutation with a susceptible wild-type counterpart in population cages. This successful proof-of-principle opens-up numerous possibilities including targeted reversion of insecticide-resistant populations to a native susceptible state or replacement of malaria transmitting mosquitoes with those bearing naturally occurring parasite resistant alleles.

2022 ◽  
Manuela Velazquez ◽  
Adam M M Stuckert ◽  
Rafael Vivero ◽  
Daniel R Matute

Sandflies are vector species of Leishmania, among many other pathogens, with a global distribution and a variety of ecological niches. Previous samplings have found that karstic formations (i.e., caves and folds formed by the erosion of limestone) serve as a natural habitat to sandfly species. The majority of samplings of cave sandfly diversity have occurred in Brazil and to date none have studied the species composition in a cave in the Northern Andes. We collected sandflies in the Cave-Los Guacharos-, in the state of Antioquia, Colombia. The sampling was carried out during two consecutive nights in September 2019. CDC-type light traps were installed inside the cavern and in other surrounding karst systems (caves and folds). In total, we identified 18 species of sandfly from the cave and surrounding karst systems, including three new records for Colombia (Bichromomyia olmeca nociva, Brumptomyia brumpti, and Warileya leponti), and provide the first karstic reports for four other species (Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia hartmanni, Pintomyia ovallesi, and Psychodopygus panamensis). We then used the results of our survey and published literature to test two hypotheses. First, that sandfly diversity in Neotropical caves is richest nearer to the equator and second that there is a phylogenetic signal of karstic habitat use in sandflies. Counter to our predictions, we found no evidence that diversity follows a latitudinal gradient. Further, we find no evidence of a phylogenetic signal of karstic habitat use, instead finding that the use of caves likely evolved multiple times across several genera. Our results highlight the importance of a wide sampling to understand the natural habitat of sandflies and other disease vectors.

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1627
Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi ◽  
Jader de Oliveira ◽  
Dayse da Silva Rocha ◽  
Cleber Galvão

Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted mainly by members of the subfamily Triatominae. There are currently 157 species, grouped into 18 genera and five tribes. Most descriptions of triatomine species are based on classical taxonomy. Facing evolutionary (cryptic speciation and phenotypic plasticity) and taxonomic (more than 190 synonymizations) problems, it is evident that integrative taxonomy studies are an important and necessary trend for this group of vectors. Almost two-and-a-half centuries after the description of the first species, we present for the first time the state-of-the-art taxonomy of the whole subfamily, covering from the initial classic studies to the use of integrative taxonomy.

EDIS ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (6) ◽  
Ana Romero-Weaver ◽  
L. Philip Lounibos ◽  
Eva A. Buckner

Water can collect in the central tanks or axils of bromeliads, and immature stages of mosquitoes sometimes inhabit these small pools. This article provides recommendations for environmentally acceptable ways to control the production of nuisance mosquitoes in bromeliads; suggestions for planting species of bromeliads less likely to favor the production of mosquito-borne disease vectors; and general advice about personal protection against mosquito bites.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Wei-Liang Liu ◽  
Chia-Wei Hsu ◽  
Shih-Peng Chan ◽  
Pei-Shi Yen ◽  
Matthew P. Su ◽  

AbstractThe areas where dengue virus (DENV) is endemic have expanded rapidly, driven in part by the global spread of Aedes species, which act as disease vectors. DENV replicates in the mosquito midgut and is disseminated to the mosquito’s salivary glands for amplification. Thus, blocking virus infection or replication in the tissues of the mosquito may be a viable strategy for reducing the incidence of DENV transmission to humans. Here we used the mariner Mos1 transposase to create an Aedes aegypti line that expresses virus-specific miRNA hairpins capable of blocking DENV replication. These microRNA are driven by the blood-meal-inducible carboxypeptidase A promoter or by the polyubiquitin promoter. The transgenic mosquitoes exhibited significantly lower infection rates and viral titers for most DENV serotypes 7 days after receiving an infectious blood meal. The treatment was also effective at day 14 post infection after a second blood meal had been administered. In viral transmission assay, we found there was significantly reduced transmission in these lines. These transgenic mosquitoes were effective in silencing most of the DENV genome; such an approach may be employed to control a dengue fever epidemic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Daniel P. Demarque ◽  
Laila S. Espindola

Natural products constitute an important source of molecules for product development. However, despite numerous reports of compounds and active extracts from biodiversity, poor and developing countries continue to suffer with endemic diseases caused by arboviral vectors, including dengue, Zika, chikungunya and urban yellow fever. Vector control remains the most efficient disease prevention strategy. Wide and prolonged use of insecticides has resulted in vector resistance, making the search for new chemical prototypes imperative. Considering the potential of natural products chemistry for developing natural products-based products, including insecticides, this contribution discusses the general aspects and specific characteristics involved in the development of drug leads for vector control. Throughout this work, we highlight the obstacles that need to be overcome in order for natural products compounds to be considered promising prototypes. Moreover, we analyze the bottlenecks that should be addressed, together with potential strategies, to rationalize and improve the efficiency of the drug discovery process.

2021 ◽  
Louise S. Nørgaard ◽  
Mariana Álvarez‐Noriega ◽  
Elizabeth McGraw ◽  
Craig R. White ◽  
Dustin J. Marshall

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document