Plant Growth
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2021 ◽  
pp. 116-125
Author(s):  
Palé Siébou ◽  
Taonda Sibiri Jean-Baptiste ◽  
Mason Stephen C. ◽  
Sermé Idriss ◽  
Sohoro Adama ◽  
...  

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) is a major grain crop in Burkina Faso. Two three-year experiments were conducted in the Sudanian and Sudano-Sahelian zones to determine how plant nutrient concentrations are affected by tillage methods (T) and soil amendments (SA). In both locations, T and SA had little effect on grain and stover nutrient concentrations with some cases of inconsistency across years. Some nutrient concentrations differed by year. The grain nutrient concentrations of N, P, Mg, S, Zn, and Fe were adequate for human nutrition at both locations, but deficient for K, Ca, Mn and Cu. Sorghum nutrient concentrations for feeding cattle were adequate for K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, and Zn in most cases at both locations but low for N, P, and Cu. The stover N and P concentrations also appeared to be deficient for optimal plant growth. In both agroecological zones, nutrient applications or genetic enhancement to improve deficient nutrient concentrations, or use of diverse foodstuffs, or biofortified sorghum to provide deficient nutrients in human and cattle diets is needed to meet dietary requirements. In addition to grain and stover yield, studies need to evaluate grain nutrient and stover nutrient concentrations to meet human and cattle dietary requirements.


Author(s):  
Lujun Yin ◽  
Xiaodong Chen ◽  
Qi Chen ◽  
Dongqing Wei ◽  
Xiang-Yang Hu ◽  
...  

Abstract Plants can detect the quorum sensing (QS) signaling molecules of microorganisms, such as amino acids, fat derivatives, and diketopiperazines (DKPs), thus allowing the exchange information to promote plant growth and development. Here, we evaluated the effects of 12 synthesized DKPs on Arabidopsis thaliana roots and studied their underlying mechanisms of action. Results showed that, as QS signal molecules, the DKPs promoted lateral root development and root hair formation in Arabidopsis thaliana to differing degrees. The DKPs enhanced the polar transport of the plant hormone auxin from the shoot to root and triggered the auxin-responsive protein IAA7/17 to decrease the auxin response factor (ARF), leading to the accumulation of auxin at the root tip and accelerated root growth. In addition, the DKPs induced the development of lateral roots and root hair in the Arabidopsis thaliana root system architecture via interference with auxin receptor transporter inhibitor response protein 1 (TIR1). A series of TIR1 sites that potentially interact with DKPs were also predicted using molecular docking analysis. Mutations of these sites inhibited the phosphorylation of TIR1 after DKP treatment, thereby inhibiting lateral root formation, especially TIR1-1 site. This study identified several DKP signal molecules in the QS system that can promote the expression of auxin response factors ARF7/19 via interactions of TIR1 and IAA7/17 proteins, thus promoting plant growth and development.


Planta ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 254 (4) ◽  
Author(s):  
Le Liu ◽  
Zongming Xie ◽  
Lili Lu ◽  
Ghulam Qanmber ◽  
Guoquan Chen ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
M. M. F. Abdalla ◽  
M. M. Shafik ◽  
Heba A. M. A. Saleh ◽  
M. A. Khater ◽  
N. A. Ghazy

Abstract Background This study aimed to development new faba bean hybrids resistant to chocolate spot disease and using them in breeding programs. Six faba bean genotypes were crossed in a diallel system excluding reciprocals during three growing seasons of 2017/18, 2018/19 and 2019/20 growing seasons. Results Results scored high variability among genotypes (parents and their crosses) in most studied characters. All characters were affected by inbreeding and most crosses recorded high significant in all characters especially the positive significance of resistance to chocolate spot disease (gain) was 5 for all studied resistance characters. Conclusions All studied plant growth and yield characters were affected negatively by chocolate spot disease. Moreover, it can be concluded that the commercial cost of producing hybrid seed can be reduced by growing F1 or directly.


Author(s):  
Oluwaseyi Samuel Olanrewaju ◽  
Modupe Stella Ayilara ◽  
Ayansina Segun Ayangbenro ◽  
Olubukola Oluranti Babalola

AbstractBacillus species genomes are rich in plant growth-promoting genetic elements. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus velezensis are important plant growth promoters; hence, to further improve their abilities, the genetic elements responsible for these traits were characterized and reported. Genetic elements reported include those of auxin, nitrogen fixation, siderophore production, iron acquisition, volatile organic compounds, and antibiotics. Furthermore, the presence of phages and antibiotic-resistant genes in the genomes are reported. Pan-genome analysis was conducted using ten Bacillus species. From the analysis, pan-genome of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus velezensis are still open. Ultimately, this study brings an insight into the genetic components of the plant growth-promoting abilities of these strains and shows their potential biotechnological applications in agriculture and other relevant sectors.


PROTOPLASMA ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Roberto Gamboa-Becerra ◽  
Damaris Desgarennes ◽  
Jorge Molina-Torres ◽  
Enrique Ramírez-Chávez ◽  
Ana L. Kiel-Martínez ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Itziar Alkorta ◽  
Carlos Garbisu

The field of soil biological remediation was initially focused on the use of microorganisms. For organic contaminants, biostimulation and bioaugmentation were the strategies of choice. For heavy metals, bioremediation was centered on the feasibility of using microorganisms to reduce metal toxicity. Partly due to the impossibility to degrade metals, phytoremediation emerged proposing the use of plants to extract them (phytoextraction) or reduce their bioavailability (phytostabilization). Later, microbial-assisted phytoremediation addressed the inoculation of plant growth-promoting microorganisms to improve phytoremediation efficiency. Similarly, plant-assisted bioremediation examined the stimulatory effect of plant growth on the microbial degradation of soil contaminants. The combination of plants and microorganisms is nowadays often recommended for mixed contaminated soils. Finally, phytomanagement emerged as a phytotechnology focused on the use of plants and associated microorganisms to decrease contaminant linkages, maximize ecosystem services, and provide economic revenues. Although biological remediation methods have been in use for decades, the truth is that they have not yet yielded the expected results. Here, we claim that much more research is needed to make the most of the many ways that microorganisms have evolutionary developed to access the contaminants and to better understand the soil microbial networks responsible, to a great extent, for soil functioning.


2021 ◽  
Vol 64 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Shamim Ahmed ◽  
Tae-Young Heo ◽  
Aritra Roy Choudhury ◽  
Denver I. Walitang ◽  
Jeongyun Choi ◽  
...  

AbstractSalinization of agricultural lands, particularly rice paddies, results in the drastic decline of crop yields. Soil salinization impacts the plant physiology by inducing salt stress which may leads to osmotic stress, ionic stress and water-related nutrient imbalance. These imbalances necessitate the need for plants to produce osmolytes including proline and glycine betaine. This study aimed to elucidate the dynamic changes in proline and glycine betaine accumulation modulated by the inoculation of Brevibacterium linens RS16 in salt-sensitive and moderately salt-tolerant rice plants under salt stress conditions. This study showed the interaction of four major factors including rice genotypes with differing tolerance to salt stress, length of exposure to salt stress, level of salt stress and effects of inoculation. Salt stress resulted in significant reduction in plant growth parameters with the salt-sensitive rice genotype (IR29) having a more significant growth reduction. Both the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice genotypes increased in total proline and glycine betaine accumulation at 3 days and 10 days after subjecting under 50 mM and 150 mM salt stress conditions. A significant increase in proline and glycine betaine was observed in the salt-sensitive genotype after 10 days under 50 mM and 150 mM salt stress conditions. Inoculation of the rice genotypes with B. linens RS16 resulted in the improvement of plant growth parameters in both rice genotypes, and total proline and glycine betaine accumulation, especially in IR29. This study showed that proline and glycine betaine are compatible osmolytes of rice under salt stress, and that inoculation of rice genotypes with B. linens RS16 mediated salt tolerance through improvement of plant growth parameters and proline and glycine betaine accumulation in rice plants.


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