Control Systems
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Rajesh L ◽  
Penke Satyanarayana

Industrial control systems (ICS) are being used for surveillance and controlling numerous industrial process plants in national critical infrastructures. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system is a core component in ICS systems for continuous monitoring and controlling these process plants. Legacy SCADA systems are working in isolated networks and using proprietary communication protocols which made them less exposed to cyber threats. In recent times, these ICS systems have been connected to Internet and corporate networks for data sharing and remote monitoring. They are also using open protocols and operating systems. This leads to vulnerabilities of the system to cyberattacks. Cybersecurity threats are more prevalent than ever in ICS systems. These attacks may be external or internal. Modbus is a widely deployed communication protocol for SCADA communications. There is no security in design of Modbus protocol, and it is vulnerable to numerous cyberattacks. In this paper, we worked for False Command Injection attack, False Access Injection attack, and replay attacks on Modbus protocol. Initially, a real-time SCADA testbed was set up, and we envisaged the impact of these attacks on Modbus protocol data using the testbed. In this work, we used local area network (LAN) environment only for simulating the attacks. We assumed that the attacks penetrated the LAN network. We proposed and developed (a) a method to detect replay attacks by incorporating time stamp and sequence number in Modbus communications and (b) a frame filtering module which will block unauthorized attacks like False Command Injection and False Access Injection attacks to reach programmable logic controller (PLC). Numbers of attacks were simulated and the performance of the method was measured using attack block rate (ABR). It blocked 97% of malicious Modbus transactions or attacks to reach the PLC. It protects SCADA systems from attackers, which is a core component of industrial control systems. The solution enhanced the security of SCADA systems with Modbus protocol.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (5s) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Liren Yang ◽  
Necmiye Ozay

In this paper, we study feedback dynamical systems with memoryless controllers under imperfect information. We develop an algorithm that searches for “adversarial scenarios”, which can be thought of as the strategy for the adversary representing the noise and disturbances, that lead to safety violations. The main challenge is to analyze the closed-loop system's vulnerabilities with a potentially complex or even unknown controller in the loop. As opposed to commonly adopted approaches that treat the system under test as a black-box, we propose a synthesis-guided approach, which leverages the knowledge of a plant model at hand. This hence leads to a way to deal with gray-box systems (i.e., with known plant and unknown controller). Our approach reveals the role of the imperfect information in the violation. Examples show that our approach can find non-trivial scenarios that are difficult to expose by random simulations. This approach is further extended to incorporate model mismatch and to falsify vision-in-the-loop systems against finite-time reach-avoid specifications.

R.Yu. Sukharev ◽  

The construction of highways is a complex, multi-stage process. Most of the construction works are carried out according to the projects of structures and quite high requirements are imposed on the quality of execution. The fulfillment of these requirements is associated with great difficulties in view of the limited accuracy of the road construction machine itself, the lack of on-board control systems and the limited capabilities of the human operator, who is unable to determine the required exact parameters of the structure being built «by eye». To meet the requirements, three-dimensional control systems are used, which allow determining 3 coordinates of the working order of the machine – the vertical coordinate and the location of the machine on the construction site. At the same time, the digital project of the constructed structure should be the setter in such a system. The system determines the current position and compares it with the project. On the basis of this information, a control effect on the operating organ of the machine is formed. The course of movement and the speed of the machine when using such systems are determined by the machine operator. Further development of these systems should be four-dimensional systems – in which all control actions are assigned to the control system, starting from calculating the trajectory of the machine, choosing the speed, determining the required number of passes and ending with controlling the position of the working body of the machine at each moment of time. For the functioning of these systems, adequate mathematical models of the turning processes of road construction machines with different steering options are necessary.

Jihoon Kim ◽  
Yudai Yamasaki

Abstract Model-based control systems are drawing attention in relation to implementing next-generation combustion technologies with high thermal efficiency and low emissions, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion, which have low robustness. A model-based control system derives control inputs according to reference values and operating conditions during every cycle, and has potential to replace the conventional control map, which requires a large number of experiments. However, model-based control for engines requires reference values for combustion, such as heat release rate peak timing and heat release rate peak value; such values represent the combustion state. Therefore, the reference for the transient condition is important for utilizing the benefit of model-based control systems, given that such systems derive control outputs cycle by cycle. In this study, design method for the combustion reference values for the transient operating condition is described for advanced diesel combustion, which uses premixed compression ignition combustion shows multiple heat releases. Specifically, a method utilizing future operating conditions in consideration of the driving characteristics is proposed and compared in engine control experiments. The proposed method was evaluated under certain part of worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycles (WLTC) mode considering real road conditions. Results showed that designing the combustion reference values for transient operation by considering future operating conditions is effective to ensure advanced combustion, and such method has the potential to consider the driving characteristics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (6) ◽  
David Honzátko ◽  
Engin Türetken ◽  
Siavash A. Bigdeli ◽  
L. Andrea Dunbar ◽  
Pascal Fua

AbstractThanks to recent advancements in image processing and deep learning techniques, visual surface inspection in production lines has become an automated process as long as all the defects are visible in a single or a few images. However, it is often necessary to inspect parts under many different illumination conditions to capture all the defects. Training deep networks to perform this task requires large quantities of annotated data, which are rarely available and cumbersome to obtain. To alleviate this problem, we devised an original augmentation approach that, given a small image collection, generates rotated versions of the images while preserving illumination effects, something that random rotations cannot do. We introduce three real multi-illumination datasets, on which we demonstrate the effectiveness of our illumination preserving rotation approach. Training deep neural architectures with our approach delivers a performance increase of up to 51% in terms of AuPRC score over using standard rotations to perform data augmentation.

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