Cardioverter Defibrillator
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2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. 3152-3156
George Horani ◽  
Kevin Hosein ◽  
Rahul Kumar ◽  
Fayez Shamoon

2021 ◽  
Vol 69 ◽  
pp. 111-118
Hideki Itoh ◽  
Takashi Murayama ◽  
Nagomi Kurebayashi ◽  
Seiko Ohno ◽  
Takuya Kobayashi ◽  

2021 ◽  
Ravi Vijapurapu ◽  
William Bradlow ◽  
Francisco Leyva ◽  
James C Moon ◽  
Abbasin Zegard ◽  

Abstract BackgroundFabry disease (FD) is a treatable X-linked condition leading to progressive cardiac disease, arrhythmia and premature death. We aimed to increase awareness of the arrhythmogenicity of Fabry cardiomyopathy, by comparing device usage in patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy and sarcomeric HCM. All Fabry patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implanted in the UK over a 17 year period were included. A comparator group of HCM patients, with primary prevention ICD implantation, were captured from a regional registry database. ResultsIndications for ICD in FD varied with 82% implanted for primary prevention based on multiple potential risk factors. In FD and HCM primary prevention devices, arrhythmia occurred more frequently in FD over shorter follow-up (HR 4.2,p<0.001). VT requiring therapy was more common in FD (HR 4.5,p=0.002). Immediate shock therapy for sustained VT was also more common (HR 2.5,p<0.001). There was a greater burden of AF needing anticoagulation and NSVT in FD (AF: HR 6.2,p=0.004, NSVT: HR 3.1,p<0.001). ConclusionThis study demonstrates arrhythmia burden and ICD usage in FD is high, suggesting that Fabry cardiomyopathy may be more ‘arrhythmogenic’ than previously thought. Existing risk models cannot be mutually applicable and further research is needed to provide clarity in managing Fabry patients with cardiac involvement.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 185-190
Giovanni Quarta ◽  
Paola Ferrari ◽  
Andrea Giammarresi ◽  
Giovanni Malanchini ◽  
Cristina Leidi ◽  

A 14-year-old boy with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) diagnosed at the age of 1 year and with massive left ventricular hypertrophy suffered an episode of ventricular fibrillation during mild effort. He underwent a dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. The defibrillation threshold testing (DFT) was ineffective. Subcutaneous multi-coli arrays tunneled into the left postero-lateral position and connected to the superior vena cava (SVC) port of the dual-chamber ICD were added to increase the myocardial mass involved in the defibrillation shock pathway. A new DFT was unsuccessful. The patient was transferred to our hospital for myectomy. An epicardial defibrillation patch was placed on the left ventricular lateral wall, but again, DFT testing was ineffective using the right ventricular (RV) coil to lateral patch as shock pathway. Another epicardial defibrillation patch was then placed on the inferior wall. In this case, DFT testing was effective with a defibrillation pathway between the two patches and the can. In November 2015, a high shock impedance alarm was recorded through remote monitoring, thus compromising the safety of the ICD shock pathway. The patient underwent the implant of a new trans-venous defibrillation coil lead in the azygos vein. After few months, the patient developed symptomatic severe aortic regurgitation and underwent an aortic valve replacement. During the operation, DFT testing was performed and was successful. Our case illustrates that azygous vein ICD lead implantation is efficacious in HCM with massive hypertrophy and high DFT, and prompts further studies to systematically investigate its efficacy in this particular subgroup of the HCM population.

Alice Maltret ◽  
Fatima Azzahrae Benaich ◽  
John Rendu ◽  
Véronique Fressart ◽  
Nathalie Roux-Buisson ◽  

Abstract Background Calmodulopathie is an emerging group of primary electrical disease with various, severe and early onset phenotype. Sudden cardiac arrest/death can be the first symptom and current medical management seams insufficient to prevent recurrences. Cardioverter defibrillator implantation (ICD) in the young is challenging and can be harmful. Case Summary We report the management of 2 very young boys (aged 3.5 and 5.5 years old) who survived a sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to calmodulin mutation responsible of a catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia phenotype. In both case, SCA had an adrenergic trigger. Despite SCA, ICD implantation was denied by the parents. After thorough discussion with the family, the patients were managed with solely betablocker treatment and loop recorder implantation. At last follow-up of 30 and 23 months respectively, there were no recurrence of any cardiac event. Discussion The benefits of ICD implantation at a very young age must be weighed against the risk complication. In the youngest, whom recreative activities are under constant supervision, the decision, jointly made with the parents, could be to postpone ICD.

Corrado Carbucicchio ◽  
Daniele Andreini ◽  
Gaia Piperno ◽  
Valentina Catto ◽  
Edoardo Conte ◽  

Abstract Purpose We present the preliminary results of the STRA-MI-VT Study (NCT04066517), a spontaneous, phase Ib/II study, designed to prospectively test the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patientswith advanced cardiac disease and intractable ventricular tachycardia (VT). Methods Cardiac computed tomography (CT) integrated by electroanatomical mapping was used for substrate identification and merged with dedicated CT scans for treatment plan preparation. A single 25-Gy radioablation dose was delivered by a LINAC-based volumetric modulated arc therapy technique in a non-invasive matter. The primary safety endpoint was treatment-related adverse effects during acute and long-term follow-up (FU), obtained by regular in-hospital controls and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) remote monitoring. The primary efficacy endpoint was the reduction at 3 and 6 months of VT episodes and ICD shocks. Results Seven out of eight patients (men; age, 70 ± 7 years; ejection fraction, 27 ± 11%; 3 ischemic, 4 non-ischemic cardiomyopathies) underwent SBRT. At a median 8-month FU, no treatment-related serious adverse event occurred. Three patients died from non-SBRT-related causes. Four patients completed the 6-month FU: the number of VT decreased from 29 ± 33 to 11 ± 9 (p = .05) and 2 ± 2 (p = .08), at 3 and 6 months, respectively; shocks decreased from 11 to 0 and 2, respectively. At 6 months, all patients. showed a significant reduction of VT episodes and no electrical storm recurrence, with the complete regression of iterative VTs in 2/2 patients. Conclusion The STRA-MI-VT Study suggests that SBRT can be considered an alternative option for the treatment of VT in patients with structural heart disease and highlights the need for further clinical investigation addressing safety and efficacy.

Diana M. Frodi ◽  
Maarten Z.H. Kolk ◽  
Joss Langford ◽  
Tariq O. Andersen ◽  
Reinoud E. Knops ◽  

Sidhi Laksono ◽  
Budhi Setianto ◽  
Mohammad Iqbal ◽  
Ananta Siddhi Prawara

AbstractThis study aimed to figure out the incidence and predictors of pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy (PICM) in patients with right ventricular (RV) pacing. We systematically searched in PubMed on March 18, 2020, for English language abstract and full-article journals, using the following criteria: pacemaker induced cardiomyopathy AND right ventricular AND pacemaker AND patients AND human NOT implantable cardioverter defibrillator NOT ICD NOT animal. Four studies were included in this review after filtering 35 studies through year of publication and abstract selection. The average PICM incidence from 1,365 patients included from the four studies was 10.7 to 13.7%. One study stated that preimplantation left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was the predictor for the development of PICM. Three studies mentioned that RV pacing burden was the predictor for the development of PICM. However, the percentage differ in three studies: ≥20, >40, and 60%. In addition, one of the studies also included interventricular dyssynchrony as another predictor. The incidence of PICM in patients with RV pacing ranged from 10.7 to 13.7%. Preimplantation LVEF, interventricular dyssynchrony, and burden of RV pacing are reported as the predictors for the development of PICM in patients with RV pacing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (5) ◽  
pp. 15-22
L. Douglas Smith ◽  
Sarah Gast ◽  
Danielle F. Guy

Background Brugada syndrome is a genetic disorder of cardiac conduction that predisposes patients to spontaneous ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Although Brugada syndrome is one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death, patients presenting with the syndrome often go misdiagnosed. This error has potentially fatal consequences for patients, who are at risk for sudden cardiac death without appropriate management. Objective To increase the critical care professional’s knowledge of Brugada syndrome through detailed description of the characteristic electrocardiographic findings, an algorithmic approach to electrocardiogram evaluation, and a case report of a patient with a previously missed diagnosis of Brugada syndrome. The essential concepts of epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, risk stratification, and management are reviewed for critical care professionals who may encounter patients with the syndrome. Diagnosis Patients typically present with syncope or cardiac arrest and an abnormal electrocardiographic finding of ST-segment elevation in the precordial leads. The diagnosis of Brugada syndrome centers on identification of its electrocardiographic characteristics by critical care professionals who routinely evaluate electrocardiograms. Critical care professionals, especially nurses and advanced practice nurses, should be proficient in recognizing the electrocardiographic appearance of Brugada syndrome and initiating appropriate management. Interventions Management strategies include prevention of sudden cardiac death through lifestyle modification and placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Critical care professionals should be aware of commonly used medications that may exacerbate ventricular arrhythmia and place patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Conclusion Increased awareness of Brugada syndrome among critical care professionals can decrease patient morbidity and mortality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_E) ◽  
pp. E112-E117
Carlo Pappone ◽  
Gabriele Negro ◽  
Giuseppe Ciconte

Abstract Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a relevant contributor to cardiovascular mortality, often occurring as a dramatic event. It can be the consequence of a ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF), a common and life-threatening arrhythmia. The underlying mechanisms of this catastrophic arrhythmia are poorly known. In fact, it can occur in the presence of a structural heart condition which itself generates the suitable substrate for this arrhythmia. Nevertheless, a VF may cause SCD also in young and otherwise healthy individuals, without overt structural abnormalities, generating difficulties in the screening and prevention of these patients. The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator represents the only therapy to contrast SCD by treating a VT/VF; however, it cannot prevent the occurrence of such arrhythmias. Catheter ablation is emerging as an essential therapeutic tool in the management of patients experiencing ventricular arrhythmias.

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