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Sujatha Arun Kokatnoor ◽  
Balachandran Krishnan

<p>The main focus of this research is to find the reasons behind the fresh cases of COVID-19 from the public’s perception for data specific to India. The analysis is done using machine learning approaches and validating the inferences with medical professionals. The data processing and analysis is accomplished in three steps. First, the dimensionality of the vector space model (VSM) is reduced with improvised feature engineering (FE) process by using a weighted term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) and forward scan trigrams (FST) followed by removal of weak features using feature hashing technique. In the second step, an enhanced K-means clustering algorithm is used for grouping, based on the public posts from Twitter®. In the last step, latent dirichlet allocation (LDA) is applied for discovering the trigram topics relevant to the reasons behind the increase of fresh COVID-19 cases. The enhanced K-means clustering improved Dunn index value by 18.11% when compared with the traditional K-means method. By incorporating improvised two-step FE process, LDA model improved by 14% in terms of coherence score and by 19% and 15% when compared with latent semantic analysis (LSA) and hierarchical dirichlet process (HDP) respectively thereby resulting in 14 root causes for spike in the disease.</p>

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 227
Arash Hemati ◽  
Hossein Ali Alikhani ◽  
Ladan Ajdanian ◽  
Mehdi Babaei ◽  
Behnam Asgari Lajayer ◽  

Humic acid (HA) is a specific and stable component of humus materials that behaves similarly to growth stimulants, esp. auxin hormones, contributing to improving growth indices and performance of plants. As a rich source of HA, vermicompost (VC) is also a plant growth stimulating bio-fertilizer that can enhance growth indices and performance in plants. The purpose of the present study is to compare the influence of VC enriched with bacterial and/or fertilizer, commercial humic acid (CHA) extract, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on improving growth characteristics and performance of rapeseed under greenhouse conditions. The results showed the complete superiority of VC over the CHA and IAA (approximately 8% increase in the dry weights of root and aerial organ and nearly three times increase in seed weight). The highest values of these indices were obtained with VC enriched with Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Phosphorus, Azotobacter chroococcum and Pseudomonas fluorescens; the lowest value was obtained with VC enriched with urea. Additionally, the application of 3% VC and the control involved the highest and lowest values in all traits, respectively. The SPAD (chlorophyll index) value and stem diameter were not significantly affected by different application levels of VC. Overall, the applications of IAA and the CHA were not found to be suitable and therefore not recommended.

2022 ◽  
Çağatay YILDIRIM ◽  
Hatice Türkten ◽  
İsmet BOZ

Abstract The study's primary purposes were to assess the sustainability index of hazelnut farms and explore the effects of part-time and full-time farming types on sustainability index in hazelnut production in the Giresun and Ordu Province of Turkey. One hundred fifty-two hazelnut farms were selected using the stratified sampling method, and data were collected. Several steps were taken, including using factor analysis after standardizing the variables to determine their weights to calculate the composite hazelnut farms sustainability index. The research findings showed that overall hazelnut sustainability scores of farms varied from 0.28 to 0.59, and the average score was 0.44 at sampled farms. The composite hazelnut sustainability index was at an unsatisfactory level. The social and economic sustainability index value of farms was equal, and they were higher than the environmental index value. The values were 0.50 and 0.30, respectively. While the economic sustainability index score of full-time farms was higher than that of part-time farms, and part-time farms had higher environmental sustainability index scores than that of full-time farms. Social sustainability scores were not different in terms of farm type. It was recommended that when designing and regulation support policies, policy-makers should differentiate part-time and full-time hazelnut farming. Training and extension programs must be planned to increase the level of knowledge of every willing farmer. In addition, training and certification programs must be implemented to enhance the quality of the foreign labor force.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 120
Matteo Ziacchi ◽  
Leonardo Calò ◽  
Antonio D’Onofrio ◽  
Michele Manzo ◽  
Antonio Dello Russo ◽  

Aims: The utilization of remote monitoring platforms was recommended amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. The HeartLogic index combines multiple implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) sensors and has proved to be a predictor of impending heart failure (HF) decompensation. We examined how multiple ICD sensors behave in the periods of anticipated restrictions pertaining to physical activity. Methods: The HeartLogic feature was active in 349 ICD and cardiac resynchronization therapy ICD patients at 20 Italian centers. The period from 1 January to 19 July 2020, was divided into three phases: pre-lockdown (weeks 1–11), lockdown (weeks 12–20), post-lockdown (weeks 21–29). Results: Immediately after the implementation of stay-at-home orders (week 12), we observed a significant drop in median activity level whereas there was no difference in the other contributing parameters. The median composite HeartLogic index increased at the end of the Lockdown. The weekly rate of alerts was significantly higher during the lockdown (1.56 alerts/week/100 pts, 95%CI: 1.15–2.06; IRR = 1.71, p = 0.014) and post-lockdown (1.37 alerts/week/100 pts, 95%CI: 0.99–1.84; IRR = 1.50, p = 0.072) than that reported in pre-lockdown (0.91 alerts/week/100 pts, 95%CI: 0.64–1.27). However, the median duration of alert state and the maximum index value did not change among phases, as well as the proportion of alerts followed by clinical actions at the centers and the proportion of alerts fully managed remotely. Conclusions: During the lockdown, the system detected a significant drop in the median activity level and generated a higher rate of alerts suggestive of worsening of the HF status.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 451
Hermizi Hapidin ◽  
Nor Munira Hashim ◽  
Mohamad Zahid Kasiram ◽  
Hasmah Abdullah

Background: This study investigates the effect of tannic acid (TA) combined with pamidronate (PAM) on a human osteoblast cell line. Methods: EC50 for TA, PAM, and different combination ratios of TA and PAM (25:75, 50:50, 75:25) were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The combination index value was utilized to analyze the degree of drug interaction, while trypan blue assay was applied to analyze the cells proliferation effect. The mineralization and detection of bone BSP and Osx genes were determined via histochemical staining and PCR test, respectively. Results: The EC50 of osteoblasts treated with TA and a 75:25 ratio of TA and PAM were more potent with lower EC50 at 0.56 µg/mL and 0.48 µg/mL, respectively. The combination of TA and PAM (75:25) was shown to have synergistic interaction. On Day 7, both TA and PAM groups showed significantly increased proliferation compared with control and combination groups. On Day 7, both the TA and combination-treated groups demonstrated a higher production of calcium deposits than the control and PAM-treated groups. Moreover, on Day 7, the combination-treated group showed a significantly higher expression of BSP and Osx genes than both the TA and PAM groups. Conclusion: Combination treatment of TA and PAM at 75:25 ameliorated the highest enhancement of osteoblast proliferation and mineralization as well as caused a high expression of BSP and Osx genes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 49 (1) ◽  
Shimaa Mostafa Abdelwhab ◽  
Lobna Ismaeil Kotb ◽  
Ghada Sameer ◽  
Ghada Dawa

Abstract Background Through the disease course, different prognostic factors have been addressed in patients with SLE admitted to intensive care unit. For instance, higher disease activity on admission, recent immunosuppressive therapy, infections, renal disease, and central nervous system involvement, all had negative effects on the outcome of the disease. It is still a clinical challenge for the physicians to manage this disease which has many aspects regarding its pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and its outcome remains to be explained. The aim of our study was determining the course, outcome, and determinants of admission to intensive care unit in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Results Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus admitted to the intensive care unit in the study sample was 21.4%, and the death rate among them is 18.2%. In our study, the main causes of intensive care admission were cardiovascular causes followed by renal failure then infections. Holding the other covariates constant, a higher value of CRP, SLEDAI, and damage index value is associated with intensive care admission among lupus patients. Conclusion Our study showed that systemic lupus erythematosus patients with a higher value of CRP, SLEDAI, and damage index value were liable for intensive care unit admission. Good control of disease activity of SLE which in turn reduces damage of different body systems is mandatory. Periodic screening for functions of renal and cardiac systems is of great value. Proper screening and prophylaxis is recommended against variable causes of infections. Rheumatologists should be careful in controlling SLE active disease and to balance the doses of immunosuppressive especially in the presence of infection. They should focus the research on finding more accurate infection predictive index parameters to early predict the onset of infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 680
Marcin Janusz

The present work examines the standard of living among the Polish municipalities of the Euroregion Baltic—an institution engaged in cross-border cooperation which is striving to improve the standard of living in border areas. The time span of the study extended to the first full year after Poland’s EU accession (2004), and to the 15th anniversary of the accession and the 20th anniversary of the establishment of the Euroregion Baltic (2019 in both cases). All 38 Polish municipalities (NUTS 5) of the Euroregion were covered by the study. Using a synthetic index of standard of living based on Hellwig’s development pattern method, the municipalities were grouped into four classes according to their index value. Hierarchical methods were used to identify which municipalities had the most similar standards of living. The highest standard of living was recorded for the small, tourism-oriented town of Jastarnia and for strong urban centers (Gdańsk, Gdynia, Olsztyn, and Elbląg). Rural municipalities, especially those situated near the Polish-Russian border (Kaliningrad Oblast), had lower standards of living. The results show a progressing polarization in the standard of living, manifested by a widening gap between first-class municipalities and the other classes. This stratification was attributed to multiple factors, including the endogenous potential of the communities.

2022 ◽  
Seunghoon Yoo ◽  
Dae Hyuk You ◽  
Jeongyoon Lee ◽  
H. Christian Hong ◽  
Sung Jin Lee

ABSTRACTBackgroundEG-Mirotin, which includes an active ingredient; EGT022, targeting Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR), the early stage of retinopathy. EG-Mirotin is a drug that is used before capillary damage progresses to an irreversible stage. Safety and efficacy of EG-Mirotin were investigated in subjects with Type 1 or 2 diabetes and NPDR with the degree from moderate to severe.MethodsSubjects (n=10, 20 eyes) satisfying the selection criteria through the screening test were administered EG-Mirotin once a day (3 mg in 1.5 ml of sterile saline) for 5 days, 5 times in total, and were evaluated of the Ischemic index changes and safety. End-of-study (EOS) is performed approximately 8 weeks ± 1 (57 days ± 7) from the first dose.ResultsA total of 4 Treatment Emergent Adverse Events (TEAE) were observed in 2 subjects out of 10 (20.00%) who received the investigational drug. Among them, no subjects were reported experiencing a TEAE related to the investigational drug. All injections were well tolerated (3 mg in 1.5 ml of sterile saline) with no dose-limiting adverse events, deaths, serious adverse events. The overall average percent change in ischemic index at each evaluation point compared to baseline was statistically significant (Greenhouse-Geisser F=9.456, p=0.004 for the main effect of time), and a larger change was observed when the baseline ischemic index value was high (Greenhouse-Geisser F=10.946, p=0.002 for the time*group interaction).ConclusionsEG-Mirotin was well tolerated and found to reverse the ischemia and leakage of capillaries in the retina caused by diabetes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 111-119
Qowam Mutashim Maulana ◽  
Zaenal Kusuma ◽  
Kurniawan Sigitt Wicaksono

The land problem that commonly occurs in Ranu Pani Watershed is erosion. Ranu Pani Watershed is an area located in the mountains with very high soil erosion. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct good management in the upstream and downstream areas. The first step before carrying out the management is to analyze the occurrence of erosion in the Ranu Pani Watershed. The purpose of this research was to predict the potential erosion and the distribution of spatial data.. The results of the research showed that the erosivity value in the Ranu Pani Watershed was 961.44 and heavy to very heavy class (0.50-0.77) of erodibility, soil texture was dominated by silt, fine granular soil structure, and moderate dominant permeability. 56.80% of the area (158.27 ha) has a slop class III (15-30%) with the land cover are natural forest with lots of litter, grasslands, shrubs, and fields of onions and potatoes. Land management is managed cultivation follows the contour line but without conservation. The result of the calculation showed that almost all areas have potential erosion value exceed the permissible erosion determination, with the potential erosion value are 1.92-4246.28 tha-1 yr-1, the range of permissible erosion value are 0.029- 1.2 tha-1 yr-1, and the erosion hazard index value is 1.57-143442.49. The results of the spatial analysis showed that 64.39% of the area (179.41 ha) has a very heavy erosion hazard class and 69.50% of the area (193.66 ha) has a very high erosion hazard index.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 121-130
A Anwar ◽  
Muliati Galib ◽  
Farizah Dhaifina Amran

Cocoa cultivation business that still has great potential in the future. The problem faced by farmers in cocoa cultivation is that farmers are still lacking in implementing post-harvest management that can provide added value and competitiveness of cocoa quality in the market. This study aimed to 1) analyze the status of cocoa sustainability in Gantarangkeke sub-regency, Bantaeng Regency; 2) analysing the sensitive leverage to the sustainability of cocoa in the Gantarangkeke sub-district. Based on the results of the analysis of the social and cultural dimension index value of 55.19 percent and infrastructure and technology of 51.66 with the category of quite sustainable. While the ecological dimension is 46.68 percent, economy 36.69 percent and legal and institutional 27.45 percent with the category of less sustainable. The results of the analysis of leverage factor, there are fourteen sensitive attributes that affect the sustainability of cocoa in Gantarangkeke sub-district, Bantaeng district. Improvement of attributes, especially sensitive attributes, can improve the cocoa sustainability index.

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