Cardiac Resynchronization
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Björn Östenson ◽  
Ellen Ostenfeld ◽  
Anna Werther-Evaldsson ◽  
Anders Roijer ◽  
Zoltan Bakos ◽  

Abstract Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) restores ventricular synchrony and induces left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling in patients with heart failure (HF) and dyssynchrony. However, 30% of treated patients are non-responders despite all efforts. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) can be used to quantify regional contributions to stroke volume (SV) as potential CRT predictors. The aim of this study was to determine if LV longitudinal (SVlong%), lateral (SVlat%), and septal (SVsept%) contributions to SV differ from healthy controls and investigate if these parameters can predict CRT response. Methods Sixty-five patients (19 women, 67 ± 9 years) with symptomatic HF (LVEF ≤ 35%) and broadened QRS (≥ 120 ms) underwent CMR. SVlong% was calculated as the volume encompassed by the atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) from end diastole (ED) to end systole (ES) divided by total SV. SVlat%, and SVsept% were calculated as the volume encompassed by radial contraction from ED to ES. Twenty age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were used as controls. The regional measures were compared to outcome response defined as ≥ 15% decrease in echocardiographic LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) from pre- to 6-months post CRT (delta, Δ). Results AVPD and SVlong% were lower in patients compared to controls (8.3 ± 3.2 mm vs 15.3 ± 1.6 mm, P < 0.001; and 53 ± 18% vs 64 ± 8%, P < 0.01). SVsept% was lower (0 ± 15% vs 10 ± 4%, P < 0.01) with a higher SVlat% in the patient group (42 ± 16% vs 29 ± 7%, P < 0.01). There were no differences between responders and non-responders in neither SVlong% (P = 0.87), SVlat% (P = 0.09), nor SVsept% (P = 0.65). In patients with septal net motion towards the right ventricle (n = 28) ΔLVESV was − 18 ± 22% and with septal net motion towards the LV (n = 37) ΔLVESV was − 19 ± 23% (P = 0.96). Conclusions Longitudinal function, expressed as AVPD and longitudinal contribution to SV, is decreased in patients with HF scheduled for CRT. A larger lateral contribution to SV compensates for the abnormal septal systolic net movement. However, LV reverse remodeling could not be predicted by these regional contributors to SV.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 ◽  
pp. 17-24
V. A. Kuznetsov ◽  
T. N. Enina ◽  
A. M. Soldatova ◽  
T. I. Petelina ◽  
S. M. Dyachkov ◽  

Purpose. To design a mathematical model, that can predict a positive response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and sinus rhythm, according to complex analysis of neurohumoral and immune activation biomarkers, fibrosis, renal dysfunction, echocardiography.Methods. Parameters of echocardiography, plasma levels of NT-proBNP, interleukins-1β, 6, 10, tumor necrosis factor α, С-reactive protein (СRP), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (ММР-9), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 and 4, cystatin С (CYSTATIN) were studied in 40 CHF patients with sinus rhythm (65% coronary artery disease patients, 75% males, mean age 54.8±10.6 years old) during the period of maximum decrease of left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) (mean duration 27.5 [11.1; 46.3] months). Responders (decrease in LVESV ≥15%) and non-responders (decrease in LVESV <15%) were identified.Results. The number of responders was 26 (65%). The initial set of variables included: age, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), pulmonary artery systolic pressure, right ventricle size and NT-proBNP, СRP, ММР-9, CYSTATIN. According to logistic regression analysis, a prediction model of positive CRT response was created. The specificity of the model was 92.9%, sensitivity - 83.3%, AUC=0.952 (р˂0.001).Conclusion. The proposed model, based on the assessment of left ventricle EF and circulating biomarkers of inflammation, fibrosis, and renal function, strongly suggests a higher possibility of response to CRT.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 7-15
Svetoslav Iovev ◽  
Peyo Zhivkov ◽  
Mariana Konteva

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) using coronary sinus (CS) leads is an established method for the therapy of congestive heart failure (CHF) in the case of asynchronous ventricular contractions. Successful therapy depends on the placement of left ventricular leads usually via the coronary sinus (CS), a technically more challenging procedure than regular pacemaker implantations. Without specifi c precautions CRT implantation can be the gateway to a time-consuming nightmare. Therefore, CS lead implantation methods, with a focus on complications, were reviewed according to the literature and our own experience with approximately 4500 procedures from 2002-2021.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 112-119
Oleg L. Dubrovin ◽  
Pavel L. Shugaev

Background: The main aim of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) is a positive response of the patient, particularly, reduction of the symptoms and improvement of the heart contractility, that can be reached in 5070% of patients. The possibility of appropriate positioning the left ventricular (LV) lead is of great importance for the response to CRT. Certain instruments and technical approaches are used for the placement of the LV lead. Here, we describe the use of the orthodromic snare technique, which is quite rare in practice, but allows one to overcome some anatomical obstacles. Clinical case description: Patient A., suffering from the heart failure with a low ejection fraction and left bundle branch block, was admitted to the hospital for CRT implantation. Before the operation, all the necessary routine instrumental and laboratory diagnostics was performed. During the operation, venography of the cardiac veins revealed unsuitability of the lateral cardiac vein for the placement of the LV lead due to its very small diameter. The posterolateral vein was suitable for the LV lead implantation but still had some anatomical difficulties: an acute angle of inflow and local stenosis in the proximal segment. During the procedure, the following techniques were used without success: positioning the LV lead by a simple translational movement forward, a subselective catheter, introduction of several coronary guides in order to smooth out the acute angle of inflow. These circumstances warranted the use of the orthodromic snare technique for a successful LV lead placement. Conclusion: This clinical case illustrates the possibility of a safe and effective use of the orthodromic snare technique for LV lead implantation. Such anatomical difficulties as a small diameter, acute angle of inflow, local stenosis have also been illustrated and discussed.

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