transcranial direct current stimulation
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Eric C Anderson ◽  
Julie Cantelon ◽  
Amanda Holmes ◽  
Grace Giles ◽  
Tad Brunye ◽  
...  

The ability to regulate the intake of unhealthy foods is critical in modern, calorie dense food environments. Frontal areas of the brain, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), are thought to play a central role in cognitive control and emotional regulation. Therefore, increasing activity in the DLPFC may enhance these functions which could improve the ability to reappraise and resist consuming highly palatable but unhealthy foods. One technique for modifying brain activity is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique for modulating neuronal excitability that can influence performance on a range of cognitive tasks. We tested whether tDCS targeting the DLPFC would influence how people perceived highly palatable foods. In the present study, 98 participants were randomly assigned to receive a single session of active tDCS or sham stimulation. While receiving active or sham stimulation, participants viewed images of highly palatable foods and reported how pleasant it would be to eat each food (liking) and how strong their urge was to eat each food (wanting). We found that participants who received active versus sham tDCS stimulation perceived food as less pleasant, but there was no difference in how strong their urge was to eat the foods. Our findings suggest that modulating excitability in the DLPFC influences “liking” but not “wanting” of highly palatable foods. Non-invasive brain stimulation might be a useful technique for influencing the hedonic experience of eating and might have implications for changing food consumption.


Author(s):  
Eduardo Lattari ◽  
Lucas Antunes Faria Vieira ◽  
Lucas Eduardo Rodrigues Santos ◽  
Marco Antonio Jesus Abreu ◽  
Guilherme Moraes Rodrigues ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 345
Author(s):  
Samuel Bulteau ◽  
Andrew Laurin ◽  
Kalyane Bach-Ngohou ◽  
Morgane Péré ◽  
Marie-Anne Vibet ◽  
...  

Background: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) are individually increasingly used in psychiatric research. Objective/Hypothesis: Our study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining tDCS and VRET with the features of wireless, 360° full immersion and embodiment and an active task to reduce height-induced anxiety. Methods: We carried out a pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled study associating VRET (two 20 min sessions with a 48 h interval, during which, participants had to cross a plank at rising heights in a building in construction) with online tDCS (targeting the ventromedial prefrontal cortex) with 28 participants. The primary outcomes were the sense of presence level and the tolerability. The secondary outcomes were the anxiety level (Subjective Unit of Discomfort) and the salivary cortisol concentration. Results: We confirmed the feasibility of the association between tDCS and fully embodied VRET associated with a good sense of presence without noticeable adverse effects. In both groups, a significant reduction in the fear of height was observed after two sessions, with only a small effect size of add-on tDCS (0.1) according to the SUD. The variations of cortisol concentration differed in the tDCS and sham groups. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the feasibility of the association between wireless online tDCS and active, fully embodied VRET. The optimal tDCS paradigm remains to be determined in this context to increase effect size and then adequately power future clinical studies assessing synergies between both techniques.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Paloma Cristina Alves de Oliveira ◽  
Thiago Anderson Brito de Araújo ◽  
Daniel Gomes da Silva Machado ◽  
Abner Cardoso Rodrigues ◽  
Marom Bikson ◽  
...  

Background: Clinical impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) alone for Parkinson's disease (PD) is still a challenge. Thus, there is a need to synthesize available results, analyze methodologically and statistically, and provide evidence to guide tDCS in PD.Objective: Investigate isolated tDCS effect in different brain areas and number of stimulated targets on PD motor symptoms.Methods: A systematic review was carried out up to February 2021, in databases: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of science. Full text articles evaluating effect of active tDCS (anodic or cathodic) vs. sham or control on motor symptoms of PD were included.Results: Ten studies (n = 236) were included in meta-analysis and 25 studies (n = 405) in qualitative synthesis. The most frequently stimulated targets were dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex. No significant effect was found among single targets on motor outcomes: Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III – motor aspects (MD = −0.98%, 95% CI = −10.03 to 8.07, p = 0.83, I2 = 0%), UPDRS IV – dyskinesias (MD = −0.89%, CI 95% = −3.82 to 2.03, p = 0.55, I2 = 0%) and motor fluctuations (MD = −0.67%, CI 95% = −2.45 to 1.11, p = 0.46, I2 = 0%), timed up and go – gait (MD = 0.14%, CI 95% = −0.72 to 0.99, p = 0.75, I2 = 0%), Berg Balance Scale – balance (MD = 0.73%, CI 95% = −1.01 to 2.47, p = 0.41, I2 = 0%). There was no significant effect of single vs. multiple targets in: UPDRS III – motor aspects (MD = 2.05%, CI 95% = −1.96 to 6.06, p = 0.32, I2 = 0%) and gait (SMD = −0.05%, 95% CI = −0.28 to 0.17, p = 0.64, I2 = 0%). Simple univariate meta-regression analysis between treatment dosage and effect size revealed that number of sessions (estimate = −1.7, SE = 1.51, z-score = −1.18, p = 0.2, IC = −4.75 to 1.17) and cumulative time (estimate = −0.07, SE = 0.07, z-score = −0.99, p = 0.31, IC = −0.21 to 0.07) had no significant association.Conclusion: There was no significant tDCS alone short-term effect on motor function, balance, gait, dyskinesias or motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease, regardless of brain area or targets stimulated.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Leandro H. Grecco

BACKGROUND The performance of a task depends on ongoing brain activity which can be influenced by attention, excitement or motivation. Scientific studies confirm that mindfulness leads to better performance, health and well-being. However, these cognitive efficiency modulating factors are nonspecific, can be difficult to control, and are not suitable to specifically facilitate neural processing. OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of tDCS associated with Neurofeedback on declarative memory and cerebral blood flow in university students. METHODS In this work, we will use Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), a low-cost physical resource, easy to apply and few adverse effects, associated with a Neurofeedback resource. This, in turn, has been shown to be a training program capable of improving working memory function. RESULTS The trial began in December 2021 and we are currently performing the statistical analysis for the secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS We believe that the resources used in this study can help improve some aspects of declarative memory, since learning and memory processes modify the brain. Strategies to enhance the acquisition, storage and use of information must be able to sensitize (motivate) and involve volunteers in the learning process, thus clarifying their role CLINICALTRIAL https://ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-4m5j4s


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