heating systems
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2022 ◽  
Vol 48 ◽  
pp. 104013
Ashutosh Sharma ◽  
Ranga Pitchumani ◽  
Ranchan Chauhan

2022 ◽  
Vol 154 ◽  
pp. 111853
A. Boldrini ◽  
J.P. Jiménez Navarro ◽  
W.H.J. Crijns-Graus ◽  
M.A. van den Broek

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Valerii A. Menshov ◽  
Aleksei V. Trofimov ◽  
Alla V. Zagurskaya ◽  
Nadezda G. Berdnikova ◽  
Olga I. Yablonskaya ◽  

Background: Through measurements of the heart rate variability (HRV) accompanied by the pertinent biomarker assays, the effects of nicotine and byproducts derived from alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS) on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hormonal system have been investigated. Methods: HRV was studied in a group of volunteers (17 people), involving non-smokers, i.e., who never smoked before (11), ex-smokers (4) and active smokers (2). ANDS and smoking simulators, including regular, nicotine-free and electronic cigarettes; tobacco heating systems; chewing gums and nicotine packs of oral fixation (nic-packs), were used. Blood pressure, levels of stress hormones in saliva and catecholamines in the blood were also monitored. Results: HRV analysis showed relatively small changes in HRV and in the other studied parameters with the systemic use of nic-packs with low and moderate nicotine contents (up to 6 mg) compared to other ANDS. Conclusions: The HRV method is proven to be a promising technique for evaluation of the risks associated with smoking, dual use of various ANDS and studying the biomedical aspects of smoking cessation. Nic-packs are shown to be leaders in biological safety among the studied ANDS. A sharp surge in the activity of the sympathetic division of the ANS within the first minutes of the use of nicotine packs implies that nicotine begins to act already at very low doses (before entering the blood physically in any significant amount) through fast signal transmission to the brain from the nicotinic and taste buds located in the mouth area.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 367
Michele Tunzi ◽  
Dorte Skaarup Østergaard ◽  
Svend Svendsen

Automated hydronic balancing in space heating systems is crucial for the fourth-generation district heating transition. The current manual balancing requires labor- and time-consuming activities. This article presents the field results of an innovative electronic radiator thermostat tested on two Danish multi-family buildings. The prototypes had an additional return temperature sensor on each radiator and an algorithm was used to accurately control valve opening to ensure automated hydronic balancing. The results highlighted that the new thermostat performed as expected and helped secure the cooling of district heating temperatures —defined as the difference between supply and return temperature—4–12 °C higher during the test compared to results obtained in 2020, when the prototypes were replaced with state-of-the-art thermostats in the first building. The measurements from the other building illustrated how only two uncontrolled radiators out of 175 could contaminate the overall return temperature. The remote connection of the thermostats helped pinpoint the faults in the heating system, although the end-users were not experiencing any discomfort, and secure, after fixing the problems, a return temperature of 35 °C. Future designs may consider integrating a safety functionality to close the valve or limit the flow in case of damage or malfunction to avoid a few radiators compromising the low-temperature operation of an entire building before the cause of the problem has been identified.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2150 (1) ◽  
pp. 012018
M N Syraleva ◽  
I V Kudinovich

Abstract An important problem in the operation of icebreakers and Arctic ships is to prevent excessive icing of ballast tanks above the waterline. Uncontrolled ice formation can damage ballast systems and lead to malfunctions of ballast systems during cargo operations. This paper presents an analysis of the dynamics of water temperature in a ballast tank when the heating system is turned on and off. Recommendations on the control algorithm for the heating system that provides maximum energy efficiency are proposed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 306 ◽  
pp. 117956
Linde Frölke ◽  
Tiago Sousa ◽  
Pierre Pinson

2022 ◽  
Vol 1211 (1) ◽  
pp. 012005
Z G Mar’ina ◽  
A Y Vereshchagin ◽  
A V Novozhilova ◽  
M A Komarevtsev ◽  
K O Isaeva

Abstract The use of aluminum radiators in heating systems began with the foreign companies products such as Fondital Group, Global Radiatori, Ferroli, etc. There are now Russian aluminum radiators companies that adhere to European standards, for example ROYAL Thermo, Rifar. The thermal characteristics of radiators are usually specified by the manufacturer. However, they are not always confirmed in practice. This is due to the fact that radiator connecting method is not taken into account. In some technical data sheets, the power reduction factors are given depending on the difference between the average coolant temperature and the air temperature in the room. Therefore, the study of the influence of aluminium heating appliances connecting on its thermal characteristics is an actual task. The article presents the results of research of radiator of the ROYAL Thermo Evolution type, it was made on request from company specialising in heating systems design. It was found that the actual thermal power of one section varies in the range of 135 … 225 W, depending on the connection method of the radiator, the thermal power of the section declared by the manufacturer corresponds only to the diagonal «top-bottom» connection, the thermal power of the eight-section radiator with one-sided «top-bottom» connection is 12% higher than with a diagonal one. Studies show, when designing heating systems, it is necessary to take into account the connection method and the number of device sections.

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