Background: Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the survival, growth and metabolism of fish. The current study was aimed to study the effects of water temperature on the metabolic enzyme activities of juvenile Siganus guttatus.
Methods: The juveniles were domesticated at 28±1°C for two weeks and then the temperature was adjusted to the target temperature groups (31°C, 27°C, 23°C and 19°C) by the gradually increasing or decreasing temperature with the change rate of 2°C per day. The experiment lasted for 70 d. At the end of the experiment, the fish were anesthetized and all the livers were dissected on ice plate and stored in the refrigerator at -80°C for the determination of enzyme activity.
Result: The activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), hexokinase (HK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) tend to be increased with the reduction of temperature. The above enzymes activities in 19°C group were highest. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and citrate synthase (CS) was lowest in 19°C. These results suggests that 19°C had exceeded the suitable temperature range for juvenile S. guttatus. At low temperature, S. guttatus mainly use fat for energy, but less anaerobic metabolism for energy.
We investigated the use of eDNA metabarcoding for supplementing traditional diver-based monitoring of biodiversity of marine boulder reefs within the photic zone. The applied sampling design made it possible to evaluate the usefulness of eDNA monitoring as a supplement for traditional monitoring. Specifically, this study aimed to (1) assess the local influence of boulder reefs on biodiversity across the North Sea to Baltic Sea transition zone and (2) investigate the importance of environmental gradients for patterns in community structure. On samples collected during August 2020, we compared the composition and abundance of species associated with nine reefs, representing an environmental gradient of salinity (16–33 psu), water temperature (16–21°C) and water depth (6–29 m). At each reef site, water was sampled near the bottom just above the reef and on average 2.6 km upstream and downstream (location) and sequenced with metabarcoding using COI, 18S and 12S rDNA primers. eDNA identified 400 species, diver-based observations identified 184 with an overlap of 70 species (12%) and 81 genera (18%). While eDNA identified many infaunal species, it did not detect several macroalgal species which dominated in the diver-based observations. Multivariate analysis of eDNA and diver-based community structure both distinguished between reef communities, with a significant match between patterns observed by the two methods (r = 0.37, p = 0.02). Furthermore, the eDNA approach made it possible to identify significant differences in species composition between upstream, above-reef and downstream locations, suggesting that eDNA leaves a local footprint in benthic habitats. Patterns in both eDNA and diver-based species composition and richness were significantly related to geographical distance, salinity, water temperature and water depth. Despite of low detection of macroalgae, the eDNA sampling provided a substantial supplement to traditional diver-based monitoring of biodiversity around benthic hotspots in the Danish marine waters and therefore we recommend to add eDNA methods to conventional monitoring programs in the future.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rinsing water temperature and preheated composites on microleakage of class V restorations with two different bonding agents.
Materials and Methods: Eighty class V cavities were prepared in the buccal and lingual surfaces of 40 molars. Single Bond and Prime and Bond NT bonding agents were used. The teeth were divided into four groups of 10. G1: After acid etching, cavities were rinsed with 23˚C water and filled with 23˚C composite resin. G2: Rinsing water and composite resin had 55˚C temperature. G3: Rinsing water had 55˚C and composite resin had 23˚C temperature. G4: Rinsing water had 23˚C and composite resin had 55˚C temperature. The specimens were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye. Microleakage scores were analysed with the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon tests.
Results: There were significant differences in microleakage of specimens prepared with Single Bond and Prime and Bond NT only in group 1 (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the microleakage of groups rinsed with different water temperatures (P>0.05). There were significant differences between the unheated and preheated composite groups (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Preheating of composite is a valuable method to increase its adaptability and decrease microleakage of composite restorations.
Abstract. The complexity of the state-of-the-art climate models
requires high computational resources and imposes rather simplified
parameterization of inland waters. The effect of lakes and reservoirs on the
local and regional climate is commonly parameterized in regional or global
climate modeling as a function of surface water temperature estimated by
atmosphere-coupled one-dimensional lake models. The latter typically neglect
one of the major transport mechanisms specific to artificial reservoirs:
heat and mass advection due to inflows and outflows. Incorporation of these
essentially two-dimensional processes into lake parameterizations requires a
trade-off between computational efficiency and physical soundness, which is
addressed in this study. We evaluated the performance of the two most used
lake parameterization schemes and a machine-learning approach on
high-resolution historical water temperature records from 24 reservoirs.
Simulations were also performed at both variable and constant water level to
explore the thermal structure differences between lakes and reservoirs. Our
results highlight the need to include anthropogenic inflow and outflow
controls in regional and global climate models. Our findings also highlight
the efficiency of the machine-learning approach, which may overperform
process-based physical models in both accuracy and computational
requirements if applied to reservoirs with long-term observations
available. Overall, results suggest that the combined use of process-based
physical models and machine-learning models will considerably improve the
modeling of air–lake heat and moisture fluxes. A relationship between mean
water retention times and the importance of inflows and outflows is
established: reservoirs with a retention time shorter than ∼ 100 d, if simulated without inflow and outflow effects, tend to exhibit a
statistically significant deviation in the computed surface temperatures
regardless of their morphological characteristics.
This paper presents the methodology for conducting a cost-optimal energy performance calculation of a solar hot water system, used for space heating and domestic hot water needs. The calculation is based on dynamic hourly methods, according to the new Energy Performance of Buildings’ (EPB) set of standards EN 15316:2017, and a revision of the standard EN 15316-5:2017 from the year 2021, dealing with storage-tank water temperature calculations. The paper provides proposals for modifications to these newly introduced standards, in order to overcome the observed ambiguities and shortcomings. The calculation of annual energy performance of a building was performed on an hourly basis over a year for the reference of an nZEB multi-apartment building, for a climate area of the city of Zagreb, taking into account water temperature change in the layers of the storage tank connected to solar collectors and hot water boilers. The cost-optimal solution was then determined by varying individual parameters of the building technical system. The influence of these parameters on the energy efficiency of the building was analyzed in detail. Furthermore, the results were compared against those obtained by the Croatian calculation algorithm based on the previous set of EPB standards, EN 15316:2008, currently used EU-wide for the energy performance certification of buildings. The results indicated that the calculation methods of the present algorithm underestimated the consumption of building primary energy by 12%. The energy delivered by solar collectors was underestimated by 18%.
Introduction. Providing people with high quality drinking water has always come first. However, its transportation through pipeline systems was often associated with some problems, such as the temperature of the water and the environment, as well as the possibility of water hammer on certain pipe sections. This was especially true for systems that use polyethylene pipes. Temperature is a key factor affecting the flexibility properties of polyethylene pipes, and it affects not only the design, but also the investment in the development of water supply networks. The purpose of these studies was to study the effect of water and ambient temperature on the density, properties of the pipe material and the speed of propagation of a hydraulic shock wave in polyethylene pipes.Materials and Methods. In the experiments performed, the method of field research was used, when tests are carried out on specialized equipment on samples specially made for the pursued purposes. Here, samples of high-density polyethylene pipes were used, which were subjected to tensile tests on a tensile testing machine, and each experiment was carried out three times.In the course of the experiments, the samples were exposed to certain temperature regimes (both external and internal), while the influence of the hydrodynamic pressure of the liquid in the pipe was also investigated, as a result of the change in time of the liquid velocity in its sections. To do this, the samples were supplied with liquid under a certain pressure in order to find out the influence on the pipes of an effect known as water hammer.Results. In the course of the research, it was found that the value of the elastic modulus of high-density polyethylene PE100 decreases with increasing water temperature, and the decrease at a temperature of 60° C reaches 60.21% compared to its value at a water temperature of +4° C. Based on the results of experiments to determine the effect of the elastic modulus of polyethylene with increasing temperature, an exponential equation was derived to calculate the value of the polyethylene coefficient as a function of time E = 1.312e-0,01t with the correlation coefficient R2 = 0.988 ; and based on the results of the studies carried out to calculate the value of the propagation velocity of a hydraulic shock wave, an exponential equation was derived as a function of time C = 275.9e-0,01t with the coefficient correlation R2 = 0.987 .Discussion and Conclusions. In the course of the research, it was found that such a phenomenon as water hammer has a harmful effect on the pipe walls, which, if possible, should be avoided even at the design stage of the water supply network. During the experiments, it was found that with an increase in temperature, the values of the elastic modulus of polyethylene decreased with a simultaneous decrease in the values of the propagation velocity of the hydraulic shock wave.
River damming inevitably reshapes water thermal conditions that are important to the general health of river ecosystems. Although a lot of studies have addressed the damming’s thermal impacts, most of them just assess the overall effects of climate variation and human activities on river thermal dynamics. Less attention has been given to quantifying the impact of climate variation, damming and flow regulation, respectively. In addition, for rivers that have already faced an erosion problem in downstream channels, an adjustment of the hydroelectric power plant operation manner is expected, which reinforces the need for understanding of flow regulation’s thermal impact. To fill this gap, an air2stream-based approach is proposed and applied at the Włocławek Reservoir in the Vistula River in Poland.
In the years of 1952–1983, downstream river water temperature rose by 0.31 ℃ after damming. Meanwhile, the construction of dam increased the average annual water temperature by 0.55 ℃, while climate change oppositely made it decreased by 0.26 ℃. In addition, for the seasonal impact of damming, autumn was the most affected season with the warming reached 1.14 ℃, and the least affected season was winter when water temperature experienced a warming of 0.1 ℃. The absolute values of seasonal average temperature changes due to flow regulation were less than 0.1 ℃ for all the seasons.
The impacts of climate variation, damming, and flow regulation on river water temperatures can be evaluated reasonably on the strength of the proposed methodology. Climate variation and damming led to general opposite impacts on the downstream water temperature at the Włocławek Reservoir before 1980s. It is noted that the climate variation impact showed an opposite trend compared to that after 1980s. Besides, flow regulation below dam hardly affected downstream river water temperature variation. This study extends the current knowledge about impacts of climate variation and hydromorphological conditions on river water temperature, with a study area where river water temperature is higher than air temperature throughout a year.