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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 155-161
Kamen Petrov

This article outlines the need for a general overview of the geodemographic state of several indicators in order to see the emerging socio-economic processes. The presentation shows that these countries have identical demographic and social problems, with the possible exception of the Albanians. Although the trend is emerging in all probability and they are facing similar trends with other countries. The derivation of the general geodemographic picture is a reason for the region to choose the implementation of European integration policies and programs that are consistent with the regional geodemographic approach of individual countries. In practice, bringing geodemographic problems to the forefront can be a successful milestone in the rapid and effective integration of these countries into the European Union.

Enrique Bonsón ◽  
Domenica Lavorato ◽  
Rita Lamboglia ◽  
Daniela Mancini

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Cristian Cantir

Abstract This article argues that post-Soviet mayors are foreign policy actors that deserve more attention from area studies and foreign policy analysis scholars. Mayors have their own diplomatic preferences and goals – rooted in geopolitical and ethnonationalist views – that they can enact using city hall institutions and networks. They can work either in harmony or in opposition with central authorities by bolstering or compromising the executive’s diplomatic goals and actions. These claims are explored in a case study of the foreign policy of Chișinău mayor Dorin Chirtoacă (2007–2017), whose diplomatic endeavors consolidated the Moldovan capital’s ties with Romania and the European Union and minimized interactions with countries in the former Soviet Union, including Russia. At times, the mayor’s actions abroad ran afoul of central authorities as he created an alternative foreign policy that undermined central foreign policy. The findings suggest that a more extensive investigation of how mayors interact with foreign actors would refine our understanding of foreign policy-making in the former Soviet Union and in Central and Eastern Europe more broadly.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Tamás Molnár

On June 3, 2021, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), closely following the Advocate General's Opinion, delivered its Grand Chamber judgment in case C-650/18 Hungary v. European Parliament by dismissing Hungary's action. The ruling confirms that the European Parliament (EP) acted within the procedural boundaries of its powers when initiating, by a two-thirds majority vote of its members, proceedings against Hungary for the situation in the country regarding the rule of law, democracy, and other values on which the European Union (EU) is founded. The ruling comes after the Hungarian government decided to challenge the validity of the resolution of the European Parliament of September 12, 2018, which triggered the proceedings foreseen in the event of a clear risk of serious breaches of the foundational values of the EU, including the rule of law, pursuant to Article 7 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU).

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Emma Beacom ◽  
Christopher McLaughlin ◽  
Sinéad Furey ◽  
Lynsey Elizabeth Hollywood ◽  
Paul Humphreys

PurposeData from the Northern Ireland (NI) Health Survey 2014/15 (n = 2,231) were statistically analysed to examine the prevalence of food insecurity according to both indicators. Pearson's X2 test for association and logistic regressions were used to examine associations between food security status and predictor variables.Design/methodology/approachHousehold food insecurity has been identified as a significant societal issue in both developed and developing nations, but there exists no universal indicator to approximate its prevalence. In NI, two indicators (United States Household Food Security Survey Module [HFSSM] and the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions [EU-SILC] food deprivation questions) have been used. This study examines how both indicators differ in their classification of food insecurity prevalence in a population sample and also examines the relationship between various demographic and household factors and food security status.FindingsAccording to the EU-SILC food deprivation questions, 8.3% (n = 185) were indicated to be food insecure, while according to the HFSSM, 6.5% (n = 146) were indicated to be food insecure. The HFSSM and EU-SILC regression models differed in the underlying variables they identified as significant predictors of food insecurity. Significant variables common to both modules were tenure, employment status, health status, anxiety/depression and receipt of benefits.Originality/valueFindings can inform policy action with regards to targeting the key contributors and can inform policy decisions in NI and elsewhere with regards to choosing the most appropriate food insecurity indicator.

2021 ◽  

The book's primary intention is to serve as a roadmap for professionals working in developing countries interested in the Nexus Water–Energy–Food–Ecosystems (WEFE) approach. The book shows a multi-disciplinary approach, showcasing the importance of the proper use of Nexus WEFE when implementing certain development programs in regions around the globe. It can be presented as a manual for an individual that either wishes to implement intervention projects following the NEXUS approach or students interested in cooperation and development. The book begins with a general explanation of the theoretical concepts and implementation processes of Nexus WEFE and continues with case studies, explaining the importance of proper implementation and potential drawbacks and solutions to them. This book has a particular focus on the European Union cooperation policies when implementing such an approach in developing countries. ISBN: 9781789062588 (paperback) ISBN: 9781789062595 (eBook) ISBN: 9789276310914 (EC)

2021 ◽  
Matthew Martin ◽  
Jo Walker ◽  
Kwesi W. Obeng ◽  
Christian Hallum

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed and worsened the depth of inequality in West Africa. It has pushed millions into poverty. There is no end in sight due to the obscene global vaccine inequality, which means that less than 4% of West Africans had been fully vaccinated against COVID-19 as at September 2021, compared with 52% in the United States and 57% in the European Union. In 2021, when COVID-19 infections are rising in West Africa, the critical support health and socioeconomic programmes put in place by most governments in 2020 are being rolled back and replaced with austerity. Many governments are following advice from the IMF and World Bank, reminiscent of the severe cuts in spending imposed under the structural adjustment policies of the 1980s and 1990s. However, as this paper argues, the pandemic offers West African governments a once-in-a-generation opportunity to invest heavily in inequality-busting policies by boosting public spending (especially on healthcare, education and social protection), making tax systems more progressive, and tackling joblessness and precarious work. This report uses the Commitment to Reducing Inequality Index (CRII) framework devised by Oxfam and Development Finance International to assess the policies of West African governments. Visit the CRI Index website to learn more:

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Kerstin Becker ◽  
Klaas Heinemann ◽  
Bruno Imthurn ◽  
Lena Marions ◽  
Sabine Moehner ◽  

AbstractEndometriosis is a chronic disease that requires a suitable, lifelong treatment. To our knowledge, the Visanne Post-approval Observational Study (VIPOS) is to date the largest real-world, non-interventional study investigating hormonal management of endometriosis. We describe women’s experiences of endometriosis in the real world by considering their symptoms and the diagnostic process in their healthcare setting. Overall, 27,840 women were enrolled from six European countries via networks of gynecologists or specialized centers. Of these, 87.8% of women were diagnosed based on clinical symptoms; the greatest and lowest proportions of women were in Russia (94.1%) and Germany (61.9%), respectively. Most women (82.8%) experienced at least one of the triad of endometriosis-associated pain symptoms: pelvic pain, pain after/during sexual intercourse, and painful menstrual periods. The most frequently reported endometriosis-associated symptoms were painful periods (61.8%), heavy/irregular bleeding (50.8%), and pelvic pain (37.2%). Women reported that endometriosis impacted their mood; 55.6% reported feeling “down”, depressed, or hopeless, and 53.2% reported feeling like a failure or having let down family/friends. VIPOS broadens our understanding of endometriosis based on real-world data by exploring the heterogeneity of symptoms women with endometriosis experience and the differences in diagnostic approaches between European countries.Trial registration:, NCT01266421; registered 24 December 2010. Registered in the European Union electronic Register of Post-Authorisation Studies as number 1613.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6674
Marek Cała ◽  
Anna Szewczyk-Świątek ◽  
Anna Ostręga

The energy transition currently taking place in the mining regions of the European Union poses many challenges that need to be addressed with a view to 2030 and 2050, of which the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is the key one. Initial results of the research project entitled “Models of a transition to a climate-neutral, circular economy for mining regions under transformation process”, which is developed in parallel with the transition of mining town Brzeszcze, are presented. The challenges, in the context of energy transition, for both the EU and local governments were identified on the basis of EU policies and the experience of the project team from the cooperation with the commune of Brzeszcze. A “research by design” method was used to develop model solutions. In the context of local challenges, there was a discussion of the Green Deal objectives and “greenery” as a tool for transformation and achieving well-being. It was concluded that a comparison of the tangible (mining and social infrastructure) and intangible (privileges) well-being provided by a “carbon-based” economy with the new “well-being” weights in favour of the new. This is reflected in the concerns of mine workers and the citizens as well. Therefore, proposing appropriate revitalization of a post-mining site will be one of the challenges. With regard to the revitalization, a discussion was held on the role of mining heritage which can trigger either a “growth machine” or a “decline machine” depending on the decisions taken, compatible or not with a circular economy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 128-141
A. M. Tleppayev ◽  
S. Zh. Zeinolla

The purpose of this study is to study the approaches to measuring the indicators of the circular economy used in the countries of the European Union and in the OECD countries to form an understanding of the applicability of the presented methods. The study used the methods of econometric modeling, statistical and comparative analyzes. A model was built using data for the European Union countries, the following variables (factors) were used to build this model: the share of material extracted and returned to the economy, the intensity of CO2 emissions, the level of energy intensity of primary energy, GDP per capita, research and development costs, the share urban population in total. Based on the simulation results, it was concluded that GDP growth and growth in energy intensity, together with an increase in the level of technology in the economy, leads to an increase in the processing of materials and their reuse in economic circulation. The results of modelling confirm the conclusions of the previous authors, the analysis of the strategies of the EU and OECD countries. It is necessary to invest more financial resources in R&D, development of new technologies and innovations for achieve better results. Greater involvement of consumers and businesses in activities conducive to the circular economy is also critical. Achieving these two goals will contribute to sustainable economic development. Based on the analysis of the model and strategies of the OECD and EU countries on the circular economy, we concluded that international innovations in the circular economy are applicable to Kazakhstan’s economy.

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