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Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 179
Author(s):  
Young-Jae Ryu ◽  
Seong-Young Kwon ◽  
Soo-Young Lim ◽  
Yong-Min Na ◽  
Min-Ho Park

Skip lymph node (LN) metastases in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) belong to N1b classification in the absence of central neck LN involvement. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive factors of skip metastases and their impact on recurrence in PTC patients with pN1b. A total of 334 PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with LN dissection (central and lateral neck compartment) followed by radioactive iodine ablation were included. Patients with skip metastases tended to have a small primary tumor (≤1 cm) and single lateral neck level involvement. Tumor size ≤ 1 cm was an important predictive factor for skip metastases. Univariate analysis for recurrence showed that patients with a central LN ratio > 0.68, lateral LN ratio > 0.21, and stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels > 7.3 ng/mL had shorter RFS (recurrence-free survival). The stimulated Tg level was associated with shorter RFS on multivariate analysis (>7.3 vs. ≤7.3 ng/mL; hazard ratio, 4.226; 95% confidence interval, 2.226−8.022; p < 0.001). Although patients with skip metastases tended to have a small primary tumor and lower burden of lateral neck LN involvement, there was no association between skip metastases and RFS in PTC with pN1b. Stimulated Tg level was a strong predictor of recurrence.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 182
Author(s):  
Annalisa Cespiati ◽  
Marica Meroni ◽  
Rosa Lombardi ◽  
Giovanna Oberti ◽  
Paola Dongiovanni ◽  
...  

Sarcopenia is defined as a loss of muscle strength, mass and function and it is a predictor of mortality. Sarcopenia is not only a geriatric disease, but it is related to several chronic conditions, including liver diseases in both its early and advanced stages. Despite the increasing number of studies exploring the role of sarcopenia in the early stages of chronic liver disease (CLD), its prevalence and the relationship between these two clinical entities are still controversial. Myosteatosis is characterized by fat accumulation in the muscles and it is related to advanced liver disease, although its role in the early stages is still under researched. Therefore, in this narrative review, we firstly aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying sarcopenia and myosteatosis in the early stage of CLD across different aetiologies (mainly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol-related liver disease and viral hepatitis). Secondly, due to the increasing prevalence of sarcopenia worldwide, we aimed to revise the current and the future therapeutic approaches for the management of sarcopenia in CLD.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 178
Author(s):  
Federica Barutta ◽  
Stefania Bellini ◽  
Marilena Durazzo ◽  
Gabriella Gruden

Periodontitis and diabetes are two major global health problems despite their prevalence being significantly underreported and underestimated. Both epidemiological and intervention studies show a bidirectional relationship between periodontitis and diabetes. The hypothesis of a potential causal link between the two diseases is corroborated by recent studies in experimental animals that identified mechanisms whereby periodontitis and diabetes can adversely affect each other. Herein, we will review clinical data on the existence of a two-way relationship between periodontitis and diabetes and discuss possible mechanistic interactions in both directions, focusing in particular on new data highlighting the importance of the host response. Moreover, we will address the hypothesis that trained immunity may represent the unifying mechanism explaining the intertwined association between diabetes and periodontitis. Achieving a better mechanistic insight on clustering of infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases may provide new therapeutic options to reduce the risk of diabetes and diabetes-associated comorbidities.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 180
Author(s):  
Pil-Soo Sung ◽  
Chang-Min Kim ◽  
Jung-Hoon Cha ◽  
Jin-Young Park ◽  
Yun-Suk Yu ◽  
...  

Innate and adaptive immune responses are critically associated with the progression of fibrosis in chronic liver diseases. In this study, we aim to identify a unique immune-related gene signature representing advanced liver fibrosis and to reveal potential therapeutic targets. Seventy-seven snap-frozen liver tissues with various chronic liver diseases at different fibrosis stages (1: n = 12, 2: n = 12, 3: n = 25, 4: n = 28) were subjected to expression analyses. Gene expression analysis was performed using the nCounter PanCancer Immune Profiling Panel (NanoString Technologies, Seattle, WA, USA). Biological meta-analysis was performed using the CBS Probe PINGSTM (CbsBioscience, Daejeon, Korea). Using non-tumor tissues from surgically resected specimens, we identified the immune-related, five-gene signature (CHIT1_FCER1G_OSM_VEGFA_ZAP70) that reliably differentiated patients with low- (F1 and F2) and high-grade fibrosis (F3 and F4; accuracy = 94.8%, specificity = 91.7%, sensitivity = 96.23%). The signature was independent of all pathological and clinical features and was independently associated with high-grade fibrosis using multivariate analysis. Among these genes, the expression of inflammation-associated FCER1G, OSM, VEGFA, and ZAP70 was lower in high-grade fibrosis than in low-grade fibrosis, whereas CHIT1 expression, which is associated with fibrogenic activity of macrophages, was higher in high-grade fibrosis. Meta-analysis revealed that STAT3, a potential druggable target, highly interacts with the five-gene signature. Overall, we identified an immune gene signature that reliably predicts advanced fibrosis in chronic liver disease. This signature revealed potential immune therapeutic targets to ameliorate liver fibrosis.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 184
Author(s):  
Nicolas C. Nicolaides ◽  
Manousos Makridakis ◽  
Rafael Stroggilos ◽  
Vasiliki Lygirou ◽  
Eleni Koniari ◽  
...  

: Significant inter-individual variation in terms of susceptibility to several stress-related disorders, such as myocardial infarction and Alzheimer’s disease, and therapeutic response has been observed among healthy subjects. The molecular features responsible for this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Proteomics, in association with bioinformatics analysis, offer a comprehensive description of molecular phenotypes with clear links to human disease pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative plasma proteomics analysis of glucocorticoid resistant and glucocorticoid sensitive healthy subjects and provide clues of the underlying physiological differences. For this purpose, 101 healthy volunteers were given a very low dose (0.25 mg) of dexamethasone at midnight, and were stratified into the 10% most glucocorticoid sensitive (S) (n = 11) and 10% most glucocorticoid resistant (R) (n = 11) according to the 08:00 h serum cortisol concentrations determined the following morning. One month following the very-low dose dexamethasone suppression test, DNA and plasma samples were collected from the 22 selected individuals. Sequencing analysis did not reveal any genetic defects in the human glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene. To investigate the proteomic profile of plasma samples, we used Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and found 110 up-regulated and 66 down-regulated proteins in the S compared to the R group. The majority of the up-regulated proteins in the S group were implicated in platelet activation. To predict response to cortisol prior to administration, a random forest classifier was developed by using the proteomics data in order to distinguish S from R individuals. Apolipoprotein A4 (APOA4) and gelsolin (GSN) were the most important variables in the classification, and warrant further investigation. Our results indicate that a proteomics signature may differentiate the S from the R healthy subjects, and may be useful in clinical practice. In addition, it may provide clues of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the chronic stress-related diseases, including myocardial infarction and Alzheimer’s disease.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 181
Author(s):  
Massimo Venditti ◽  
Sergio Minucci

The identification and characterization of new proteins involved in spermatogenesis is fundamental, considering that good-quality gametes are basic in ensuring proper reproduction. Here, we further analyzed the temporal and spatial localization during the first spermatogenic wave of rat testis of EHBP1L1, which is involved in vesicular trafficking due to the CH and bMERB domains, which bind to actin and Rab8/10, respectively. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses showed that EHBP1L1 protein expression started at 21 days post-partum (dpp) concomitantly with the appearance of primary spermatocytes (I SPC). In subsequent stages, EHBP1L1 specifically localized together with actin in the perinuclear cytoplasm close to the acrosomal and Golgian regions of spermatids (SPT) during the different phases of acrosome biogenesis (AB). Moreover, it was completely absent in elongated SPT and in mature spermatozoa, suggesting that its role was completed in previous stages. The combined data, also supported by our previous report demonstrating that EHBP1L1 mRNA was expressed by primary (I) and secondary (II) SPC, lead us to hypothesize its specific role during AB. Although these results are suggestive, further studies are needed to better clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of AB, with the aim to use EHBP1L1 as a potential new marker for spermatogenesis.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 183
Author(s):  
Cristina Fraquelli ◽  
Jasmine Hauzinger ◽  
Christian Humpel ◽  
Maria Nolano ◽  
Vincenzo Provitera ◽  
...  

The serpinins are relatively novel peptides generated by proteolytic processing of chromogranin A and they are comprised of free serpinin, serpinin-RRG and pGlu-serpinin. In this study, the presence and source of these peptides were studied in the skin. By Western blot analysis, a 40 kDa and a 50 kDa protein containing the sequence of serpinin were detected in the trigeminal ganglion and dorsal root ganglia in rats but none in the skin. RP-HPLC followed by EIA revealed that the three serpinins are present in similar, moderate amounts in rat dorsal root ganglia, whereas in the rat skin, free serpinin represents the predominant molecular form. There were abundant serpinin-positive cells in rat dorsal root ganglia and colocalization with substance P was evident. However, much more widespread distribution of the serpinins was found in dorsal root ganglia when compared with substance P. In the skin, serpinin immunoreactivity was found in sensory nerves and showed colocalization with substance P; as well, some was present in autonomic nerves. Thus, although not exclusively, there is evidence that serpinin is a constituent of the sensory innervation of the skin. The serpinins are biologically highly active and might therefore be of functional significance in the skin.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 177
Author(s):  
Luca Filippi ◽  
Oreste Bagni ◽  
Carmelo Crisafulli ◽  
Ivan Cerio ◽  
Gabriele Brunotti ◽  
...  

Our aim was to assess the detection rate (DR) of positron emission computed tomography (PET/CT) with anti-1-amino-3-[18F]-flurocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-FACBC) in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) from prostate cancer (PC). As a secondary endpoint, we evaluated 18F-FACBC PET/CT’s impact on patients management. Clinical records of 81 patients submitted to 18F-FACBC PET/CT due to PC BCR in two Italian Nuclear Medicine Units were retrospectively assessed. DR was gauged in the whole cohort and stratifying patients by discrete intervals of PSA levels. PET/CT’s impact on clinical management was scored as (1) major if it entailed an intermodality change (e.g., from systemic to loco-regional therapy); (2) minor if it led to an intramodality change (e.g., modified radiotherapy field). PET/CT’s DR resulted in 76.9% in the whole cohort, with a positive predictive value of 96.7%. Stratified by PSA quartile intervals, PET/CT’s DR was 66.7%, 71.4%, 78.9% and 90% for PSA 0.2–0.57 ng/mL, 0.58–0.99 ng/mL, 1–1.5 ng/mL and >1.5 ng/mL without significant difference among groups (p = 0.81). The most common sites of relapse were prostate bed and pelvic lymph nodes (59.3%). PET/CT impacted on clinical management in 33/81 cases (40.7%), leading to a major change in 30 subjects (90.9%). 18F-FACBC PET/CT localized recurrence in patients with BCR, with meaningful DR also at low PSA levels and significantly impacted on clinical management.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 175
Author(s):  
Ji-Won Noh ◽  
Hee-Kwon Yang ◽  
Min-Soo Jun ◽  
Byung-Cheol Lee

Obesity causes low-grade inflammation that results in dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. We evaluated the effect of puerarin on obesity and metabolic complications both in silico and in vivo and investigated the underlying immunological mechanisms. Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: normal chow, control (HFD), HFD + puerarin (PUE) 200 mg/kg, and HFD + atorvastatin (ATO) 10 mg/kg groups. We examined bodyweight, oral glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, oral fat tolerance test, serum lipids, and adipocyte size. We also analyzed the percentage of total, M1, and M2 adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and the expression of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL4, CCL5, and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4. In silico, we identified the treatment-targeted genes of puerarin and simulated molecular docking with puerarin and TNF, M1, and M2 macrophages based on functionally enriched pathways. Puerarin did not significantly change bodyweight but significantly improved fat pad weight, adipocyte size, fat area in the liver, free fatty acids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol in vivo. In addition, puerarin significantly decreased the ATM population and TNF-α expression. Therefore, puerarin is a potential anti-obesity treatment based on its anti-inflammatory effects in adipose tissue.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 176
Author(s):  
Jun Jiang ◽  
Ursula Kraneburg ◽  
Ulf Dornseifer ◽  
Arndt F. Schilling ◽  
Ektoras Hadjipanayi ◽  
...  

The ability to use the body’s resources to promote wound repair is increasingly becoming an interesting area of regenerative medicine research. Here, we tested the effect of topical application of blood-derived hypoxia preconditioned serum (HPS) on wound healing in a murine wound model. Alginate hydrogels loaded with two different HPS concentrations (10 and 40%) were applied topically on full-thickness wounds created on the back of immunocompromised mice. We achieved a significant dose-dependent wound area reduction after 5 days in HPS-treated groups compared with no treatment (NT). On average, both HPS-10% and HPS-40% -treated wounds healed 1.4 days faster than NT. Healed tissue samples were investigated on post-operative day 15 (POD 15) by immunohistology and showed an increase in lymphatic vessels (LYVE-1) up to 45% with HPS-40% application, while at this stage, vascularization (CD31) was comparable in the HPS-treated and NT groups. Furthermore, the expression of proliferation marker Ki67 was greater on POD 15 in the NT-group compared to HPS-treated groups, in accordance with the earlier completion of wound healing observed in the latter. Collagen deposition was similar in all groups, indicating lack of scar tissue hypertrophy as a result of HPS-hydrogel treatment. These findings show that topical HPS application is safe and can accelerate dermal wound healing in mice.


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