alternating current
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 26 ◽  
pp. 101314
Rencheng Zhuang ◽  
Dekai Zhou ◽  
Xiaocong Chang ◽  
Yi Mo ◽  
Guangyu Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Jaime Ibanez ◽  
Blanka Zicher ◽  
Kate Brown ◽  
Lorenzo Rocchi ◽  
Andrea Casolo ◽  

Transcranial alternating current stimulation (TACS) is commonly used to synchronise the output of a cortical area to other parts of the nervous system, but evidence for this based on brain recordings in humans is challenging. The brain transmits beta oscillations (~21Hz) to tonically contracted limb muscles linearly and through the fastest corticospinal pathways. Therefore, muscle activity may be used as a proxy measure for the level of beta entrainment in the corticospinal tract due to TACS over motor cortex. Here, we assessed if TACS is able to modulate the neural inputs to muscles, which would provide an indirect evidence for TACS-driven neural entrainment. In the first part of this study, we ran a series of simulations of motor neuron (MN) pools receiving inputs from corticospinal neurons with different levels of beta entrainment. Results indicated that MNs should be highly sensitive to changes in corticospinal beta activity. Then, we ran experiments on healthy human subjects (N=10) in which TACS (at 1mA) was delivered over the motor cortex at 21Hz (beta stimulation), or at 7Hz or 40Hz (control conditions) while the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) or the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) were tonically contracted. Muscle activity was measured using high-density electromyography, which allowed us to decompose the spiking activity of pools of motor units innervating the studied muscles. By analysing motor unit pool activity, we observed that none of the tested TACS conditions could consistently alter the spectral characteristics of the common neural inputs received by the muscles. These results suggest that 1mA-TACS over motor cortex given at frequencies in the beta band does not affect corticospinal beta entrainment.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 650
Lenka Kunčická ◽  
Radim Kocich ◽  
Petr Kačor ◽  
Michal Jambor ◽  
Miroslav Jopek

The nature of alternating current transfer via metallic materials is specific, since the current density tends to be inhomogeneous across the cross-section of the conductor and the skin effect tends to occur. However, the influence of this effect on the behaviour of the conductor can be optimized via the design and fabrication procedures. The study presents innovative design of an Al–Cu clad conductor, which is supposed to affect favourably the influence of the skin effect. The clad conductors of various diameters (20 mm, 15 mm, and 10 mm) were fabricated via rotary swaging at room temperature, and their electric characteristics were subsequently examined both experimentally and via numerical simulations. Structure analyses performed to document the effects of the swaging technology on the development of substructure and characteristic structural features were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (electron backscatter diffraction analyses), and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the design of the composite has a favourable effect on decreasing the power losses during alternating current transfer and that the substructure development affected favourably the electric resistance of the conductor. The highest electric resistance was measured for the composite conductor with the diameter of 20 mm (1.8% increase compared to electric resistance during transfer of direct current). This value then decreased to 0.6%, and 0.1% after swaging down to the diameters of 15 mm, and 10 mm; the 10 mm composite featured the finest grains, partially restored structure, and texture randomization compared to the 20 mm and 15 mm composites. Manufacturing of the clad composite via rotary swaging imparted advantageous combinations of both the electric and mechanical properties, as swaging also introduced increased microhardness.

Dong-Hun Chae ◽  
Mattias Kruskopf ◽  
Jan Kučera ◽  
Jaesung Park ◽  
Yefei Yin ◽  

Abstract Interlaboratory comparisons of the quantized Hall resistance are essential to verify the international coherence of primary impedance standards. Here we report on the investigation of the stability of p-doped graphene-based quantized Hall resistance devices at direct and alternating currents at CMI, KRISS, and PTB. To improve the stability of the electronic transport properties of the polymer encapsulated device, it was shipped in an over-pressurized transport chamber. The agreement of the quantized resistance with RK/2 at direct current was on the order of 1 nΩ/Ω between 3.5 T and 7.5 T at a temperature of 4.2 K despite changes in the carrier density during the shipping of the devices. At alternating current, the quantized resistance was realized in a double-shielded graphene Hall device. Preliminary measurements with digital impedance bridges demonstrate the good reproducibility of the quantized resistance near the frequency of 1 kHz within 0.1 μΩ/Ω throughout the international delivery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Víctor Martínez-Pérez ◽  
Miriam Tortajada ◽  
Lucía B. Palmero ◽  
Guillermo Campoy ◽  
Luis J. Fuentes

AbstractCurrent theoretical accounts on the oscillatory nature of sustained attention predict that entrainment via transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) at alpha and theta frequencies on specific areas of the prefrontal cortex could prevent the drops in vigilance across time-on-task. Nonetheless, most previous studies have neglected both the fact that vigilance comprises two dissociable components (i.e., arousal and executive vigilance) and the potential role of differences in arousal levels. We examined the effects of theta- and alpha-tACS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in both components of vigilance and in participants who differed in arousal level according to their chronotype and time of testing. Intermediate-types performed the vigilance tasks when their arousal level was optimal, whereas evening-types performed the vigilance tasks when their arousal levels were non-optimal. Both theta- and alpha-tACS improved arousal vigilance in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), whereas alpha-tACS, but not theta-tACS, improved executive vigilance in the sustained attention to response task (SART), and counteracted the typical vigilance decrement usually observed in this task. Importantly, these stimulation effects were only found when arousal was low (i.e., with evening-types performing the tasks at their non-optimal time of day). The results support the multicomponent view of vigilance, the relevance of heeding individual differences in arousal, and the role of alpha oscillations as a long-range cortical scale synchronization mechanism that compensates the decrements in performance as a function of time-on-task by exerting and maintaining cognitive control attributed to activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

2022 ◽  
Vol 45 ◽  
pp. 103721
Abhinav Kumar ◽  
Seepana Praveen Kumar ◽  
Ashish Agrawal ◽  
Vladimir Ivanovich Velkin

2022 ◽  
pp. 110066
Jiankang Huang ◽  
Yanqin Huang ◽  
Xiaoquan Yu ◽  
Guangyin Liu ◽  
Shurong Yu ◽  

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document