oculocutaneous albinism
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2022 ◽  
Vol 63 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Charlotte C. Kruijt ◽  
Libe Gradstein ◽  
Arthur A. Bergen ◽  
Ralph J. Florijn ◽  
Benoit Arveiler ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Somprakash Dhangar ◽  
Purvi Panchal ◽  
Jagdeeshwar Ghatanatti ◽  
Jitendra Suralkar ◽  
Anjali Shah ◽  

Abstract Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypo-pigmentation of skin, hair, and eyes. The OCA clinical presentation is due to a deficiency of melanin biosynthesis. Intellectual disability (ID) in OCA cases is a rare clinical presentation and appropriate diagnosis of ID is challenging through clinical examination. We report an Indian family with a rare co-inheritance of OCA1B and ID due to a novel TYR gene variant and chromosomal copy number variations. Methods We have done a study on three siblings (2 males and 1 female) of a family where all of them presented with hypopigmented skin, hair and eyes. The male children and their father was affected with ID. Targeted exome sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis were carried out to identify the OCA1B and ID associated genomic changes. Further Array-CGH was performed using SurePrint G3 Human CGH + SNP, 8*60 K array. Results A rare homozygous deletion of exon 3 in TYR gene causing OCA1B was identified in all three children. The parents were found to be heterozygous carriers. The Array-CGH analysis revealed paternally inherited heterozygous deletion(1.9 MB) of 15q11.1-> 15q11.2 region in all three children. Additionally, paternally inherited heterozygous deletion(2.6 MB)of 10q23.2-> 10q23.31 region was identified in the first male child; this may be associated with ID as the father and the child both presented with ID. While the 2nd male child had a denovo duplication of 13q31.1-> 13q31.3 chromosomal region. Conclusion A rare homozygous TYR gene exon 3 deletion in the present study is the cause of OCA1B in all three children, and the additional copy number variations are associated with the ID. The study highlights the importance of combinational genetic approaches for diagnosing two different co-inherited disorders (OCA and ID). Hence, OCA cases with additional clinical presentation need to be studied in-depth forthe appropriate management of the disease.

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 14
Sajjad Karim ◽  
Samah Saharti ◽  
Nofe Alganmi ◽  
Zeenat Mirza ◽  
Ahmed Alfares ◽  

Background: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of low or missing pigmentation in the eyes, hair, and skin. Multiple types of OCA, including Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 6 (HPS6), are distinguished by their genetic cause and pigmentation pattern. HPS6 is characterized by OCA, nose bleeding due to platelet dysfunction, and lysosome storage defect. To date, 25 disease-associated mutations have been reported in the HPS6 gene. Methods: DNA was extracted from proband, and whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed using the Illumina NovaSeq platform. Bioinformatic analysis was done with a custom-designed filter pipeline to detect the causative variant. We did Sanger sequencing to confirm the candidate variant and segregation analysis, and protein-based structural analysis to evaluate the functional impact of variants. Result: Proband-based WES identified two novel homozygous mutations in HPS6 (double mutation, c.1136C>A and c.1789delG) in an OCA suspect. Sanger sequencing confirmed the WES results. Although no platelet and/or lysosome storage defect was detected in the patient or family, an oculocutaneous albinism diagnosis was established based on the HPS6 mutations. Structural analysis revealed the transformation of abnormalities at protein level for both nonsense and frameshift mutations in HPS6. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, the double mutation in HPS6 (p.Ser379Ter and p.Ala597GlnfsTer16) represents novel pathogenic variants, not described previously, which we report for the first time in the Saudi family. In silico analyses showed a significant impact on protein structure. WES should be used to identify HPS6 and/or other disease-associated genetic variants in Saudi Arabia, particularly in consanguineous families.

Natalia V. Zhurkova ◽  
Nato D. Vashakmadze ◽  
Natella V. Suhanova ◽  
Grigorii V. Revunenekov ◽  
Olga B. Gordeeva ◽  

Background. Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome type 6 is rare hereditary disease caused by pathogenic variants in base sequence, deletions, and insertions in the HPS6 gene encoding the transmembrane protein of the same name. This disease occurs with hemorrhagic syndrome, oculocutaneous albinism, and inflammatory bowel diseases (in some cases). The clinical picture of the disease, including the gastrointestinal tract pathology, has not been studied completely due to the syndrome rarity.Clinical case description. We would like to present the description of clinical case of the patient with Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome type 6 accompanied with bowel vascular malformation. The patient diagnosed with “oculocutaneous albinism” at the age of 4.5 has shown recurrent intestinal bleedings, blood hemoglobin concentration decrease to 45 g/l; platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width remained within the reference values. Slight decrease of Quick’s value to 68% (normal range 70–120%) was revealed. The study of platelet morphology has revealed a decrease in the number of dense granules: < 3 in 25% platelets, < 6 — in 64%. Ultrasound investigation has revealed signs of vascular malformation in ascending colon: significant changes of diameter (widening) and shape of intestinal wall vessels. Molecular genetic analysis (NGS) has revealed the nucleotide variant c.1133T>G (p.Leu378Arg) in homozygous state in the HPS6 gene. The same variant in homozygous state was revealed in the younger proband sister who also had vascular changes in the ascending colon wall.Conclusion. Differential diagnosis of Germanic–Pudlak syndrome type 6 should be performed with other types of this syndrome as well as with syndrome and non-syndrome forms of oculocutaneous albinism. Molecular genetic confirmation of the diagnosis is suggested via massive parallel sequencing (NGS) methods (exome sequencing included) due to the rarity of Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome.

2021 ◽  
Vol 139 (12) ◽  
pp. e214068
Gabriel Bezerra Castaldelli ◽  
Ana Júlia Bezerra Castaldelli ◽  
Volney Anderson Castaldelli

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Benoît Mbiya Mukinayi ◽  
John Mpoyi Kalenda ◽  
Didier Kalombo Kalenda ◽  
Ghislain Disashi Tumba ◽  
Béatrice Gulbis

Abstract Background Sickle cell disease and oculocutaneous albinism are rare autosomal recessive disorders both related to mutations on chromosome 11. The diagnosis of patients suffering from both pathologies is necessary to enable dedicated monitoring of any complications at the ophthalmic and skin level. However, few cases are described in the literature. Case presentation A 14-month-old Congolese male child affected by oculocutaneous albinism, presented with pallor and jaundice. Blood indices revealed severe hemolytic anemia, which led to the diagnosis of sickle cell disease. The patient received a blood transfusion and close follow-up. Conclusions The co-inheritance of sickle cell disease and oculocutaneous albinism is a reality in the Democratic Republic of Congo, although it is rarely described. Given the current state of our knowledge, specific surveillance, specifically regarding cutaneous and ophthalmological complications, should be offered in this particular population. To enable this dedicated follow-up, sensitization to screening for sickle cell anemia in albino individuals should be carried out.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (10) ◽  
pp. 2546-2549
Muhammad Ikram Ullah ◽  
Muhammad Shakil ◽  
Adnan Riaz

Aim: The objective of the present study was to recruit congenital families of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and mutations in TYR and OCA2 genes are identified, which is further expanding the mutation spectrum in this population. Methods: Two consanguineous families with OCA were recruited and whole blood was collected. Clinical examination was carried out to determine the visual acuity and related eye, skin and hair examinations. Genomic DNA was extracted by standard phenol-chloroform method. Targeted exome sequencing by TruSight one sequencing panel sequencing was carried out. Sanger sequencing was performed for mutation detection in tyrosinase (TYR) and the OCA2 genes and co-segregation in OCA families. Results: Clinically, the affected individuals of two OCA families showed clinical characteristics including white to pale skin, white or blonde hairs, irritant to light, nystagmus and reduced vision. DNA sequencing showed the genetic mutation of TYR and OCA2 genes in two OCA families. In family 1, the nucleotide variant (c.1255G>A; p.Gly419Arg) was detected inTYR gene, while in another family, the splice-site variant c.1045-15T>G was identified in OCA2. Conclusion: This study concluded that identification of TYR and OCA2 mutations in OCA disease are commonly associated with the population where the consanguinity is persistent. These findings expanded the molecular basis of oculocutaneous albinism in Pakistani families and established the mode of genetic counselling and for diagnostic outcome. Keywords: Consanguineous families; Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA); mutations; tyrosinase (TYR); OCA2 gene.

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