retinal pigment epithelium
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-30
Yuan-Yuan Gao ◽  
Jie Huang ◽  
Wu-Jun Li ◽  
Yang Yu ◽  

AIM: To investigate the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in photoinduced injuries in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and how Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) contributes to the increased of RPE cells to photoinduced autophagy. METHODS: In vitro cultures of human RPE strains (ARPE-19) were prepared and randomly divided into the blank control, model, low-dose LBP, middle-dose LBP, high-dose LBP, and 3-methyladenine (3MA) groups. The viability of the RPE cells and apoptosis levels in each group were tested through cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) method with a flow cytometer (Annexin V/PI double staining technique). The expression levels of LC3II, LC3I, and P62 proteins were detected with the immunofluorescence method. The expression levels of beclin1, LC3, P62, PI3K, P-mTOR, mTOR, P-Akt, and Akt proteins were tested through Western blot. RESULTS: LBP considerably strengthens cell viability and inhibits the apoptosis of RPE cells after photoinduction. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway is activated because of the upregulation of the phosphorylation levels of Akt and mTOR proteins, and thus autophagy is inhibited. CONCLUSION: LBP can inhibit the excessive autophagy in RPE cells by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways and thereby protect RPE cells from photoinduced injuries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Zhe Zhu ◽  
Jun Xiao ◽  
Lifu Luo ◽  
Bo Yang ◽  
He Zou ◽  

Abstract Background Herein, we report two cases of unilateral retinal pigment epithelium dysgenesis (URPED) in Chinese patients and explore the relationship between URPED and combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (CHRRPE). Case presentation The lesion margins in the two cases showed pathognomonic clinical features of URPED, namely, a scalloped reticular margin in hyperplastic retinal pigment epithelium and mild fibrosis. The hypoautofluorescence observed by fundus autofluorescence was inverted compared with that observed by fundus fluorescence angiography. A large amount of fibroglial proliferation and disorganization of the retina involving the whole layer, which are also found in peripapillary CHRRPE, were found in the lesions. Conclusions URPED appears to share some clinical features with CHRRPE, and the relationship between URPED and CHRRPE needs further study.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 159
Hao-Yu Tsai ◽  
Henkie Isahwan Ahmad Mulyadi Lai ◽  
Zhang-Yuan Chen ◽  
Tai-Chi Lin ◽  
Winnie Khor ◽  

Autophagy plays a protective role in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by eliminating damaged organelles in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dual-specificity protein phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), which belongs to the DUSP subfamily, works as a negative-feedback regulator of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. However, the complex interplay between DUSP6 and autophagy induced by ROS in RPE is yet to be investigated. To investigate the relationship between DUSP6 and autophagy, we exposed the ARPE-19 cell line and C57BL/6N mice to sodium iodate (NaIO3) as an oxidative stress inducer. Our data showed that the inhibition of DUSP6 activity promotes autophagy flux through the ERK pathway via the upregulation of immunoblotting expression in ARPE-19 cells. Live imaging showed a significant increase in autophagic flux activities, which suggested the restoration autophagy after treatment with the DUSP6 inhibitor. Furthermore, the mouse RPE layer exhibited an irregular structure and abnormal deposits following NaIO3 injection. The retina layer was recovered after being treated with DUSP6 inhibitor; this suggests that DUSP6 inhibitor can rescue retinal damage by restoring the mouse retina’s autophagy flux. This study suggests that the upregulation of DUSP6 can cause autophagy flux malfunctions in the RPE. The DUSP6 inhibitor can restore autophagy induction, which may serve as a potential therapeutic approach for retinal degeneration disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
R. Scott Duncan ◽  
Daniel T. Hurtado ◽  
Conner W. Hall ◽  
Peter Koulen

The purpose of this study was to determine if different vitamin E components exhibit similar efficacy and mechanism of action in protecting Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells from oxidative damage. We hypothesized that α-tocopherol (αT) is unique among vitamin E components in its cytoprotective mechanism of action against oxidative stress in RPE cells and that it requires protein synthesis for optimal antioxidant effect. We used cell viability assays, fluorescent chemical labeling of DNA and actin and immuno-labeling of the antioxidant proteins Nrf2 and Sod2 and of the tight junction protein, ZO-1, and confocal microscopy to determine the effects of αT and γT against oxidative stress in immortalized human RPE cells (hTERT-RPE). Using the four main vitamin E components, αT, γT, δ-tocopherol (δT) and α-tocotrienol (αTr), we ascertained that they exhibit similar, but not identical, antioxidant activity as αT when used at equimolar concentrations. In addition, we determined that the exposure time of RPE cells to α-tocopherol is critical for its ability to protect against oxidative damage. Lastly, we determined that αT, but not γT, partially requires the synthesis of new proteins within a 24-h period and prior to exposure to tBHP for optimal cytoprotection. We conclude that, unlike γT and δT, αT appears to be unique in its requirement for transport and/or signaling for it to be an effective antioxidant. As a result, more focus should be paid to which vitamin E components are used for antioxidant interventions.

Ophthalmology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 129 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Carlo A. Cutolo ◽  
Massimo Nicolò ◽  
Carlo E. Traverso

2022 ◽  
Vol 100 (S267) ◽  
Ana Alvarez‐Barrios ◽  
Lydia Álvarez ◽  
Montserrat García ◽  
Eszter Emri ◽  
Imre Lengyel ◽  

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