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Gene ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 811 ◽  
pp. 146071
Zhi Yao ◽  
Jiaxiao Li ◽  
Zijing Zhang ◽  
Yanan Chai ◽  
Xian Liu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Shruthy Priya Prakash ◽  
Vaidheki Chandrasekar ◽  
Selvi Subramanian ◽  
Rahamatthunnisha Ummar

Banana being a major food crop all around the world, attracts various research interests in crop improvement. In banana, complete genome sequences of Musa accuminata and Musa balbisiana are available. However, the mitochondrial genome is not sequenced or assembled. Mitochondrial (mt) genes play an important role in flower and seed development and in Cytoplasmic Male Sterility. Unraveling banana mt genome architecture will be a foundation for understanding inheritance of traits and their evolution. In this study, the complete banana mt genome is assembled from the whole genome sequence data of the Musa acuminata subsp. malaccensis DH-Pahang. The mt genome sequence acquired by this approach was 409574 bp and it contains, 54 genes coding for 25 respiratory complex proteins 15 ribosomal proteins, 12 tRNA genes and two ribosomal RNA gene. Except atpB, rps11 and rps19 other genes are in multiple copies. The copy number is 12 in tRNA genes. In addition, nearly 25% tandem repeats are also present in it. These mt proteins are identical to the mt proteins present in the other members of AA genome and share 98% sequence similarity with M. balbisiana. The C to U RNA editing is profoundly higher (87 vs 13%) in transcripts of M. balbisiana (BB) compared to M. accuminata (AA). The banana AA mitochondrial genome is tightly packed with 233 genes, with less rearrangements and just 5.3% chloroplast DNA in it. The maintenance of high copy number of functional mt genes suggest that they have a crucial role in the evolution of banana.

PLoS Genetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009996
Alexey D. Vyatkin ◽  
Danila V. Otnyukov ◽  
Sergey V. Leonov ◽  
Aleksey V. Belikov

There is a growing need to develop novel therapeutics for targeted treatment of cancer. The prerequisite to success is the knowledge about which types of molecular alterations are predominantly driving tumorigenesis. To shed light onto this subject, we have utilized the largest database of human cancer mutations–TCGA PanCanAtlas, multiple established algorithms for cancer driver prediction (2020plus, CHASMplus, CompositeDriver, dNdScv, DriverNet, HotMAPS, OncodriveCLUSTL, OncodriveFML) and developed four novel computational pipelines: SNADRIF (Single Nucleotide Alteration DRIver Finder), GECNAV (Gene Expression-based Copy Number Alteration Validator), ANDRIF (ANeuploidy DRIver Finder) and PALDRIC (PAtient-Level DRIver Classifier). A unified workflow integrating all these pipelines, algorithms and datasets at cohort and patient levels was created. We have found that there are on average 12 driver events per tumour, of which 0.6 are single nucleotide alterations (SNAs) in oncogenes, 1.5 are amplifications of oncogenes, 1.2 are SNAs in tumour suppressors, 2.1 are deletions of tumour suppressors, 1.5 are driver chromosome losses, 1 is a driver chromosome gain, 2 are driver chromosome arm losses, and 1.5 are driver chromosome arm gains. The average number of driver events per tumour increases with age (from 7 to 15) and cancer stage (from 10 to 15) and varies strongly between cancer types (from 1 to 24). Patients with 1 and 7 driver events per tumour are the most frequent, and there are very few patients with more than 40 events. In tumours having only one driver event, this event is most often an SNA in an oncogene. However, with increasing number of driver events per tumour, the contribution of SNAs decreases, whereas the contribution of copy-number alterations and aneuploidy events increases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yu Jiang ◽  
Lili Wu ◽  
Yunshen Ge ◽  
Jian Zhang ◽  
Yanru Huang ◽  

Background: The prenatal BACs-on-Beads™ (PNBoBs™) assay has been applied worldwide for prenatal diagnosis. However, there are neither guidelines nor consensus on choosing patients, sample types, or clinical pathways for using this technique. Moreover, different perspectives have emerged regarding its clinical value. This study aimed to evaluate its clinical utility in the context of clinical practice located in a prenatal diagnostic center in Xiamen, a city in southeast China.Methods: We tested 2,368 prenatal samples with multiple referral indications using both conventional karyotyping and PNBoBs™. Positive results from PNBoBs™ were verified using current gold-standard approaches.Results: The overall rates for the detection of pathogenic copy number variation (pCNV) by karyotyping and PNBoBs™ were 1.9% (46/2,368) and 2.0% (48/2,368), respectively. The overall detection rate of karyotyping combined with PNBoBs™ for pCNV was 2.3% (54/2,368). A total of 13 cases of copy number variation (CNV)with a normal karyotype were detected by PNBoBs™. Another case with a normal karyotype that was detected as a CNV of sex chromosomes by PNBoBs™ was validated to be maternal cell contamination by short tandem repeat analysis.Conclusion: Karyotyping combined with PNBoBs™ can improve both the yield and efficiency of prenatal diagnosis and is appropriate in the second trimester in all patients without fetal ultrasound anomalies who undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Shuhang Wang ◽  
Pei Yuan ◽  
Beibei Mao ◽  
Ning Li ◽  
Jianming Ying ◽  

AbstractSeveral clinical trials have shown the safety and effectiveness of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in neoadjuvant therapy in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, 18–83% patients can benefit from it. In this study, we aimed to assess the association of PD-L1 expression, tumor mutation burden, copy number alteration (CNA, including copy number gain and loss) burden with the pathologic response to neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade and investigate the changes in the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) during neoadjuvant immunotherapy in NSCLC. Pre-immunotherapy treatment tumor samples from twenty-nine NSCLC patients who received neoadjuvant immunotherapy with sintilimab, an anti-PD-1 drug, were subjected to targeted DNA sequencing and PD-L1 immunochemistry staining. The pathological response was positively correlated with tumor proportion score (TPS) of PD-L1 and negatively correlated with copy number gain (CNgain) burden. Of note, the combination of CNgain burden and TPS can better stratify major pathological response (MPR) patients than did CNgain or TPS alone. Whereas, TMB showed a limited correlation with pathological regression. Additionally, PD-1 blockade led to an increase in CD8+PD-1−T cells which was clinically relevant to MPR as evaluated by multiplex immunofluorescence. A significant reduction in CD19+ cells was observed in the Non-MPR group but not in the MPR group, indicating the involvement of B cells in improving neoadjuvant immunotherapy response in NSCLC. Together, our study provides new data for the correlation of PD-L1 expression and genomic factors with drug response in neoadjuvant immunotherapy settings in NSCLC. The changes of TIME may provide novel insight into the immune responses to neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lang Yang ◽  
Hong He ◽  
Qichao Chen ◽  
Kaiying Wang ◽  
Yanfeng Lin ◽  

NDM-1-producing multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis brings formidable clinical challenges. We report a nosocomial outbreak of carbapenem-resistant P. mirabilis in China. Six P. mirabilis strains collected in the same ward showed close phylogenetic relatedness, indicating clonal expansion. Illumina and MinION sequencing revealed that three isolates harbored a novel Salmonella genomic island 1 carrying a blaNDM–1 gene (SGI1-1NDM), while three other isolates showed elevated carbapenem resistance and carried a similar SGI1 but with two blaNDM–1 gene copies (SGI1-2NDM). Four new single nucleotide mutations were present in the genomes of the two-blaNDM–1-harboring isolates, indicating later emergence of the SGI1-2NDM structure. Passage experiments indicated that both SGI variants were stably persistent in this clone without blaNDM–1 copy number changes. This study characterizes two novel blaNDM–1-harboring SGI1 variants in P. mirabilis and provides a new insight into resistance gene copy number variation in bacteria.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 372
Thomas Harasim ◽  
Teresa Neuhann ◽  
Anne Behnecke ◽  
Miriam Stampfer ◽  
Elke Holinski-Feder ◽  

Objective: Amniocentesis, chorionic villi sampling and first trimester combined testing are able to screen for common trisomies 13, 18, and 21 and other atypical chromosomal anomalies (ACA). The most frequent atypical aberrations reported are rare autosomal aneuploidies (RAA) and copy number variations (CNV), which are deletions or duplications of various sizes. We evaluated the clinical outcome of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) results positive for RAA and large CNVs to determine the clinical significance of these abnormal results. Methods: Genome-wide NIPT was performed on 3664 eligible patient samples at a single genetics center. For patients with positive NIPT reports, the prescribing physician was asked retrospectively to provide clinical follow-up information using a standardized questionnaire. Results: RAAs and CNVs (>7 Mb) were detected in 0.5%, and 0.2% of tested cases, respectively. Follow up on pregnancies with an NIPT-positive result for RAA revealed signs of placental insufficiency or intra-uterine death in 50% of the cases and normal outcome at the time of birth in the other 50% of cases. We showed that CNV testing by NIPT allows for the detection of unbalanced translocations and relevant maternal health conditions. Conclusion: NIPT for aneuploidies of all autosomes and large CNVs of at least 7 Mb has a low “non-reportable”-rate (<0.2%) and allows the detection of additional conditions of clinical significance.

PPAR Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Minghui Tang ◽  
Jingyao Wang ◽  
Liangsheng Fan

Endometrial cancer is a common malignant tumor in gynecology, and the prognosis of advanced patients is dismal. Recently, many studies on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathway have elucidated its crucial involvement in endometrial cancer. Copy number variation (CNA) and nucleotide mutations often occur in tumor tissues, leading to abnormal protein expression and changes in protein structure. We analyzed the exon sequencing data of endometrial cancer patients in the TCGA database and found that somatic changes in PPAR pathway-related genes (PPAR-related-gene) often occur in UCEC patients. Patients with CNA or mutation changes in the exon region of the PPAR-related-gene usually have different prognostic outcomes. Furthermore, we found that the mRNA transcription and protein translation levels of PPAR-related-gene in UCEC are significantly different from that of adjacent tissues/normal uterus. The transcription level of some PPAR-related-gene (DBI, CPT1A, CYP27A1, and ME1) is significantly linked to the prognosis of UCEC patients. We further constructed a prognostic predicting tool called PPAR Risk score, a prognostic prediction tool that is a strong independent risk factor for the overall survival rate of UCEC patients. Comparing to the typical TNM classification system, this tool has higher prediction accuracy. We created a nomogram by combining PPAR Risk score with clinical characteristics of patients in order to increase prediction accuracy and promote clinical use. In summary, our study demonstrated that PPAR-related-gene in UCEC had significant alterations in CNA, nucleotide mutations, and mRNA transcription levels. These findings can provide a fresh perspective for postoperative survival prediction and individualized therapy of UCEC patients.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Michael Chong ◽  
Pedrum Mohammadi-Shemirani ◽  
Nicolas Perrot ◽  
Walter Nelson ◽  
Robert Morton ◽  

Background: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) is an accessible blood-based measurement believed to capture underlying mitochondrial function. The specific biological processes underpinning its regulation, and whether those processes are causative for disease, is an area of active investigation.Methods: We developed a novel method for array-based mtDNA-CN estimation suitable for biobank-scale studies, called 'AutoMitoC'. We applied AutoMitoC to 395,781 UKBiobank study participants and performed genome and exome-wide association studies, identifying novel common and rare genetic determinants. Finally, we performed two-sample Mendelian Randomization to assess whether genetically low mtDNA-CN influenced select mitochondrial phenotypes.Results: Overall, genetic analyses identified 71 loci for mtDNA-CN, which implicated several genes involved in rare mtDNA depletion disorders, dNTP metabolism, and the mitochondrial central dogma. Rare variant analysis identified SAMHD1 mutation carriers as having higher mtDNA-CN (beta=0.23 SDs; 95% CI, 0.18- 0.29; P=2.6x10-19), a potential therapeutic target for patients with mtDNA depletion disorders, but at increased risk of breast cancer (OR=1.91; 95% CI, 1.52-2.40; P=2.7x10-8). Finally, Mendelian randomization analyses suggest a causal effect of low mtDNA-CN on dementia risk (OR=1.94 per 1 SD decrease in mtDNA-CN; 95% CI, 1.55-2.32; P=7.5x10-4).Conclusions: Altogether, our genetic findings indicate that mtDNA-CN is a complex biomarker reflecting specific mitochondrial processes related to mtDNA regulation, and that these processes are causally related to human diseases.Funding: No funds supported this specific investigation. Awards and positions supporting authors include: Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Doctoral Award (MC, PM); CIHR Post-Doctoral Fellowship Award (RM); Wellcome Trust Grant number: 099313/B/12/A; Crasnow Travel Scholarship; Bongani Mayosi UCT-PHRI Scholarship 2019/2020 (TM); Wellcome Trust Health Research Board Irish Clinical Academic Training (ICAT) Programme Grant Number: 203930/B/16/Z (CJ); European Research Council COSIP Grant Number: 640580 (MO); E.J. Moran Campbell Internal Career Research Award (MP); CISCO Professorship in Integrated Health Systems and Canada Research Chair in Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology (GP).

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