mutational spectrum
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2022 ◽  
Vol 63 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Charlotte C. Kruijt ◽  
Libe Gradstein ◽  
Arthur A. Bergen ◽  
Ralph J. Florijn ◽  
Benoit Arveiler ◽  

2022 ◽  
Shin-ichi Usami ◽  
Yuichi Isaka ◽  
Maiko Miyagawa ◽  
Shin-ya Nishio

AbstractVariants in the CDH23 gene are known to be responsible for both syndromic hearing loss (Usher syndrome type ID: USH1D) and non-syndromic hearing loss (DFNB12). Our series of studies demonstrated that CDH23 variants cause a broad range of phenotypes of non-syndromic hearing loss (DFNB12); from congenital profound hearing loss to late-onset high-frequency-involved progressive hearing loss. In this study, based on the genetic and clinical data from more than 10,000 patients, the mutational spectrum, clinical characteristics and genotype/phenotype correlations were evaluated. The present results reconfirmed that the variants in CDH23 are an important cause of non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. In addition, we showed that the mutational spectrum in the Japanese population, which is probably representative of the East Asian population in general, as well as frequent CDH23 variants that might be due to some founder effects. The present study demonstrated CDH23 variants cause a broad range of phenotypes, from non-syndromic to syndromic hearing loss as well as from congenital to age-related hearing loss. Genotype (variant combinations) and phenotype (association with retinal pigmentosa, onset age) are shown to be well correlated and are thought to be related to the residual function defined by the CDH23 variants.

eJHaem ◽  
2021 ◽  
Chi‐Keung Cheng ◽  
Jennifer W. Y. Lai ◽  
Yuk‐Lin Yung ◽  
Hoi‐Yun Chan ◽  
Raymond S. M. Wong ◽  

2021 ◽  
Alina G. Mikhailova ◽  
Alina A. Mikhailova ◽  
Kristina Ushakova ◽  
Evgenii Tretiakov ◽  
Viktor A Shamanskiy ◽  

The mutational spectrum of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) does not resemble any of the known mutational signatures of the nuclear genome and variation in mtDNA mutational spectra between different tissues and organisms is still incomprehensible. Since mitochondria is tightly involved in aerobic energy production, it is expected that mtDNA mutational spectra may be affected by the oxidative damage which is increasing with organismal aging. However, the well-documented mutational signature of the oxidative damage, G>T substitutions, is typical only for the nuclear genome while it is extremely rare in mtDNA. Thus it is still unclear if there is a mitochondria-specific mutational signature of the oxidative damage. Here, reconstructing mtDNA mutational spectra for 424 mammalian species with variable generation length which is a proxy for oocyte age, we observed that the frequency of AH>GH substitutions (H - heavy chain notation) is positively correlated with organismal longevity. This mutational bias from AH to GH significantly affected the nucleotide content of analyzed 650 complete mammalian mitochondrial genomes, where fourfold degenerative synonymous positions of long-lived species become more AH poor and GH rich. Because (i) A>G is a substitution, typical for mtDNA; (ii) it is characterized by very strong asymmetry: A>G is several-fold more frequent on a heavy chain as compared to the light one; (iii) it is sensitive to the time being single-stranded during mtDNA asynchronous replication; (iv) it is associated with oxidative damage of single-stranded DNA in recent experimental studies we propose that A>G is a novel mutational signature of age-associated oxidative damage of single-stranded mtDNA. The described association of the mtDNA mutational spectra with a species-specific life-history trait can significantly affect general patterns of molecular evolution of mtDNA.

George P. Paraskevas ◽  
Maria Ioanna Stefanou ◽  
Vasilios C. Constantinides ◽  
Eleni Bakola ◽  
Maria Chondrogianni ◽  

Rabab Khairat ◽  
Rasha Elhossini ◽  
Nara Sobreira ◽  
Elizabeth Wohler ◽  
Ghada Otaify ◽  

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 1676
Marcela Vela-Amieva ◽  
Miguel Angel Alcántara-Ortigoza ◽  
Isabel Ibarra-González ◽  
Ariadna González-del Angel ◽  
Liliana Fernández-Hernández ◽  

Establishing the genotypes of patients with hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA)/phenylketonuria (PKU, MIM#261600) has been considered a cornerstone for rational medical management. However, knowledge of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) mutational spectrum in Latin American populations is still limited. Herein, we aim to update the mutational PAH spectrum in the largest cohort of HPA/PKU Mexican patients (N = 124) reported to date. The biallelic PAH genotype was investigated by Sanger automated sequencing, and genotypes were correlated with documented biochemical phenotypes and theoretical tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) responsiveness. Patients were biochemically classified as having classic PKU (50%, 62/124), mild PKU (20.2%, 25/124) and mild HPA (29.8%, 37/124). Furthermore, 78.2% of the included patients (97/124) were identified by newborn screening. A total of 60 different pathogenic variants were identified, including three novel ones (c. 23del, c. 625_626insC and c. 1315 + 5_1315 + 6insGTGTAACAG), the main categories being missense changes (58%, 35/60) and those affecting the catalytic domain (56.6%, 34/60), and c. 60 + 5G > T was the most frequent variant (14.5%, 36/248) mainly restricted (69.2%) to patients from the central and western parts of Mexico. These 60 types of variants constituted 100 different biallelic PAH genotypes, with the predominance of compound-heterozygous ones (96/124, 77%). The expected BH4 responsiveness based on the PAH genotype was estimated in 52% of patients (65/124), mainly due to the p. (Val388Met) (rs62516101) allele. Instead, our study identified 27 null variants with an allelic phenotype value of zero, with a predominance of c. 60 + 5G > T, which predicts the absence of BH4 responsiveness. An identical genotype reported in BIOPKUdb was found in 92/124 (74%) of our patients, leading to a genotype–phenotype concordance in 80/92 (86.9%) of them. The high number of variants found confirms the heterogeneous and complex mutational landscape of HPA/PKU in Mexico.

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