induced pluripotent stem cell
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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
pp. 77-87
Takeshi Tada ◽  
Hiroe Ohnishi ◽  
Norio Yamamoto ◽  
Fumihiko Kuwata ◽  
Yasuyuki Hayashi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 888-896
Wenjuan Fan ◽  
Chen Xudong ◽  
Sun Yizheng ◽  
Shanshan Wu ◽  
Haili Wang ◽  

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurologic disorder that impacts a diverse population of older adults. As three-dimensional (3D) models are powerful tools for advancing AD studies, the authors have been developed AD cortical organoids to enable the observation of AD pathology at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. For creating the model, APPSwe/Ind (APP) and PSEN1 (PS1) mutant genes were transfected into mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) following which the iPSC lines that expressed mutant APP and PS1 proteins were obtained. Then, using modified serum-free suspended embryoid body culture, AD cerebral organoids were made successfully at various ages. The AD model can show AD’s biochemical and pathological alterations, such as overexpressions of Aβ40 and Aβ42 and a decrease of GABAergic interneurons. The proposed model has the potential for implementation in many biomedical applications, including AD drug screening, stem cell transplant, and neuronal tissue engineering.

2022 ◽  
Felix Alonso-Valenteen ◽  
Sam Sances ◽  
HongQiang Wang ◽  
Simoun Mikhael ◽  
Jessica Sims ◽  

Abstract Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks selective biomarkers targeted by current clinical therapies and often metastasizes to the brain. Crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reaching intracranial tumors is a clinical challenge contributing to poor prognoses for patients. The human epidermal growth factor receptor HER3 has emerged as a biomarker of metastasis and may provide a means of therapeutically targeting TNBC. We have developed HER3-targeted biological particles (bioparticles) that exhibit systemic homing to resistant and metastatic breast tumors. Here we show that HER3 is expressed on the brain endothelium and can mediate the passage of bioparticles across the BBB and into intracranial TNBC. Our findings show that the extravasation of systemic bioparticles in mice and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-based BBB chips corresponds to HER3 levels. Furthermore, systemically delivered bioparticles carrying tumoricidal agents reduced the growth of intracranial TNBC in mice and exhibited improved therapeutic profile compared to current therapies.

Alexandra Rhoden ◽  
Thomas Schulze ◽  
Niels Pietsch ◽  
Torsten Christ ◽  
Arne Hansen ◽  

Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM), a myosin activator, was reported to induce complex concentration- and species-dependent effects on contractile function and clinical studies indicated a low therapeutic index with diastolic dysfunction at concentrations above 1 µM. To further characterize effects of OM in a human context and under different preload conditions, we constructed a setup that allows isometric contractility analyses of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived engineered heart tissues (EHTs). The results were compared to effects of OM on the very same EHTs measured under auxotonic conditions. OM induced a sustained, concentration-dependent increase in time-to-peak under all conditions (maximally 2-3 fold). Peak force, in contrast, was increased by OM only in human, but not rat EHTs and only under isometric conditions, varied between hiPSC lines and showed a biphasic concentration-dependency with maximal effects at 1 µM. Relaxation time tended to fall under auxotonic and strongly increase under isometric conditions, again with biphasic concentration-dependency. Diastolic tension concentration-dependently increased under all conditions. The latter was reduced by an inhibitor of the mitochondrial sodium calcium exchanger (CGP-37157). OM induced increases in mitochondrial oxidation in isolated cardiomyocytes, indicating that OM, an inotrope that does not increase intracellular and mitochondrial Ca2+, can induce mismatch between an increase in ATP and ROS production and unstimulated mitochondrial redox capacity. Taken together, we developed a novel setup well suitable for isometric measurements of EHTs. The effects of OM on contractility and diastolic tension are complex with concentration-, time-, species- and loading-dependent differences. Effects on mitochondrial function require further studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 32
Alan Faulkner-Jones ◽  
Victor Zamora ◽  
Maria P. Hortigon-Vinagre ◽  
Wenxing Wang ◽  
Marcus Ardron ◽  

In this work, we show that valve-based bioprinting induces no measurable detrimental effects on human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). The aim of the current study was three-fold: first, to assess the response of hiPSC-CMs to several hydrogel formulations by measuring electrophysiological function; second, to customise a new microvalve-based cell printing mechanism in order to deliver hiPSC-CMs suspensions, and third, to compare the traditional manual pipetting cell-culture method and cardiomyocytes dispensed with the bioprinter. To achieve the first and third objectives, iCell2 (Cellular Dynamics International) hiPSC-CMs were used. The effects of well-known drugs were tested on iCell2 cultured by manual pipetting and bioprinting. Despite the results showing that hydrogels and their cross-linkers significantly reduced the electrophysiological performance of the cells compared with those cultured on fibronectin, the bio-ink droplets containing a liquid suspension of live cardiomyocytes proved to be an alternative to standard manual handling and could reduce the number of cells required for drug testing, with no significant differences in drug-sensitivity between both approaches. These results provide a basis for the development of a novel bioprinter with nanolitre resolution to decrease the required number of cells and to automate the cell plating process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Dena Esfandyari ◽  
Bio Maria Ghéo Idrissou ◽  
Konstantin Hennis ◽  
Petros Avramopoulos ◽  
Anne Dueck ◽  

AbstractAbnormalities of ventricular action potential cause malignant cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Here, we aim to identify microRNAs that regulate the human cardiac action potential and ask whether their manipulation allows for therapeutic modulation of action potential abnormalities. Quantitative analysis of the microRNA targetomes in human cardiac myocytes identifies miR-365 as a primary microRNA to regulate repolarizing ion channels. Action potential recordings in patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes show that elevation of miR-365 significantly prolongs action potential duration in myocytes derived from a Short-QT syndrome patient, whereas specific inhibition of miR-365 normalizes pathologically prolonged action potential in Long-QT syndrome myocytes. Transcriptome analyses in these cells at bulk and single-cell level corroborate the key cardiac repolarizing channels as direct targets of miR-365, together with functionally synergistic regulation of additional action potential-regulating genes by this microRNA. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments confirm miR-365-dependent regulation of repolarizing ionic current Iks. Finally, refractory period measurements in human myocardial slices substantiate the regulatory effect of miR-365 on action potential in adult human myocardial tissue. Our results delineate miR-365 to regulate human cardiac action potential duration by targeting key factors of cardiac repolarization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Seo Young Kim ◽  
Jihye Choi ◽  
Junhee Roh ◽  
Chul Hoon Kim

AbstractIn the CNS, pericytes are important for maintaining the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and for controlling blood flow. Recently, several methods were suggested for the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into brain mural cells, specifically pericytes or vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs). Unfortunately, identifying the pericytes from among such hPSC-derived mural cells has been challenging. This is due both to the lack of pericyte-specific markers and to the loss of defining anatomical information inherent to culture conditions. We therefore asked whether NeuroTrace 500/525, a newly developed dye that shows cell-specific uptake into pericytes in the mouse brain, can help identify human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived brain pericyte-like cells. First, we found that NeuroTrace 500/525 specifically stains primary cultured human brain pericytes, confirming its specificity in vitro. Second, we found that NeuroTrace 500/525 specifically labels hiPSC-derived pericyte-like cells, but not endothelial cells or vSMCs derived from the same hiPSCs. Last, we found that neuroectoderm-derived vSMCs, which have pericyte-like features, also take up NeuroTrace 500/525. These data indicate NeuroTrace 500/525 is useful for identifying pericyte-like cells among hiPSC-derived brain mural cells.

Mario G. Pavez-Giani ◽  
Lukas Cyganek

Around one third of patients with mitochondrial disorders develop a kind of cardiomyopathy. In these cases, severity is quite variable ranging from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. ATP is primarily generated in the mitochondrial respiratory chain via oxidative phosphorylation by utilizing fatty acids and carbohydrates. Genes in both the nuclear and the mitochondrial DNA encode components of this metabolic route and, although mutations in these genes are extremely rare, the risk to develop cardiac symptoms is significantly higher in this patient cohort. Additionally, infants with cardiovascular compromise in mitochondrial deficiency display a worse late survival compared to patients without cardiac symptoms. At this point, the mechanisms behind cardiac disease progression related to mitochondrial gene mutations are poorly understood and current therapies are unable to substantially restore the cardiac performance and to reduce the disease burden. Therefore, new strategies are needed to uncover the pathophysiological mechanisms and to identify new therapeutic options for mitochondrial cardiomyopathies. Here, human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has emerged to provide a suitable patient-specific model system by recapitulating major characteristics of the disease in vitro, as well as to offer a powerful platform for pre-clinical drug development and for the testing of novel therapeutic options. In the present review, we summarize recent advances in iPSC-based disease modeling of mitochondrial cardiomyopathies and explore the patho-mechanistic insights as well as new therapeutic approaches that were uncovered with this experimental platform. Further, we discuss the challenges and limitations of this technology and provide an overview of the latest techniques to promote metabolic and functional maturation of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes that might be necessary for modeling of mitochondrial disorders.

2022 ◽  
Martin Broberg ◽  
Minna Ampuja ◽  
Samuel Jones ◽  
Tiina Ojala ◽  
Otto Rahkonen ◽  

AbstractCongenital heart defects (CHD) are structural defects of the heart affecting approximately 1% of newborns. CHDs exhibit a complex inheritance pattern. While genetic factors are known to play an important role in the development of CHD, relatively few variants have been discovered so far and very few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted. We performed a GWAS of general CHD and five CHD subgroups in FinnGen followed by functional fine-mapping through eQTL analysis in the GTEx database, and target validation in human induced pluripotent stem cell - derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CM) from CHD patients. We discovered that the MYL4-KPNB1 locus (rs11570508, beta = 0.24, P = 1.2×10−11) was associated with the general CHD group. An additional four variants were significantly associated with the different CHD subgroups. Two of these, rs1342740627 associated with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects and rs1293973611 associated with septal defects, were Finnish population enriched. The variant rs11570508 associated with the expression of MYL4 (normalized expression score (NES) = 0.1, P = 0.0017, in the atrial appendage of the heart) and KPNB1 (NES = -0.037, P = 0.039, in the left ventricle of the heart). Furthermore, lower expression levels of both genes were observed in human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) from CHD patients compared to healthy controls. Together, the results demonstrate KPNB1 and MYL4 as in a potential genetic risk loci associated with the development of CHD.

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