pathogenic variants
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Fumikatsu Nohara ◽  
Go Tajima ◽  
Hideo Sasai ◽  
Yoshio Makita

AbstractMedium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease caused by biallelic pathogenic ACADM variants. We report a case of an asymptomatic Japanese girl with MCAD deficiency caused by compound heterozygous pathogenic variants (NM_000016.5:c.1040G > T (p.Gly347Val) and c.449_452delCTGA (p.Thr150ArgfsTer4)). Because the MCAD residual activity in lymphocytes of the patient was below the limit of quantification, both variants are likely to cause complete loss of MCAD enzymatic activity.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 149
María Domínguez-Ruiz ◽  
Montserrat Rodríguez-Ballesteros ◽  
Marta Gandía ◽  
Elena Gómez-Rosas ◽  
Manuela Villamar ◽  

Pathogenic variants in the PJVK gene cause the DFNB59 type of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment (AR-NSHI). Phenotypes are not homogeneous, as a few subjects show auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), while others show cochlear hearing loss. The numbers of reported cases and pathogenic variants are still small to establish accurate genotype-phenotype correlations. We investigated a cohort of 77 Spanish familial cases of AR-NSHI, in whom DFNB1 had been excluded, and a cohort of 84 simplex cases with isolated ANSD in whom OTOF variants had been excluded. All seven exons and exon-intron boundaries of the PJVK gene were sequenced. We report three novel DFNB59 cases, one from the AR-NSHI cohort and two from the ANSD cohort, with stable, severe to profound NSHI. Two of the subjects received unilateral cochlear implantation, with apparent good outcomes. Our study expands the spectrum of PJVK mutations, as we report four novel pathogenic variants: p.Leu224Arg, p.His294Ilefs*43, p.His294Asp and p.Phe317Serfs*20. We review the reported cases of DFNB59, summarize the clinical features of this rare subtype of AR-NSHI and discuss the involvement of PJVK in ANSD.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 207
Luke Mansard ◽  
Christel Vaché ◽  
Julie Bianchi ◽  
Corinne Baudoin ◽  
Isabelle Perthus ◽  

GSDME, also known as DFNA5, is a gene implicated in autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), affecting, at first, the high frequencies with a subsequent progression over all frequencies. To date, all the GSDME pathogenic variants associated with deafness lead to skipping of exon 8. In two families with apparent ADNSHL, massively parallel sequencing (MPS) integrating a coverage-based method for detection of copy number variations (CNVs) was applied, and it identified the first two causal GSDME structural variants affecting exon 8. The deleterious impact of the c.991-60_1095del variant, which includes the acceptor splice site sequence of exon 8, was confirmed by the study of the proband’s transcripts. The second mutational event is a complex rearrangement that deletes almost all of the exon 8 sequence. This study increases the mutational spectrum of the GSDME gene and highlights the crucial importance of MPS data for the detection of GSDME exon 8 deletions, even though the identification of a causal single-exon CNV by MPS analysis is still challenging.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Ashley L. Cooney ◽  
Jennifer A. Wambach ◽  
Patrick L. Sinn ◽  
Paul B. McCray

Pulmonary surfactant is critically important to prevent atelectasis by lowering the surface tension of the alveolar lining liquid. While respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is common in premature infants, severe RDS in term and late preterm infants suggests an underlying genetic etiology. Pathogenic variants in the genes encoding key components of pulmonary surfactant including surfactant protein B (SP-B, SFTPB gene), surfactant protein C (SP-C, SFTPC gene), and the ATP-Binding Cassette transporter A3 (ABCA3, ABCA3 gene) result in severe neonatal RDS or childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). These proteins play essential roles in pulmonary surfactant biogenesis and are expressed in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC2), the progenitor cell of the alveolar epithelium. SP-B deficiency most commonly presents in the neonatal period with severe RDS and requires lung transplantation for survival. SFTPC mutations act in an autosomal dominant fashion and more commonly presents with chILD or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis than neonatal RDS. ABCA3 deficiency often presents as neonatal RDS or chILD. Gene therapy is a promising option to treat monogenic lung diseases. Successes and challenges in developing gene therapies for genetic disorders of surfactant dysfunction include viral vector design and tropism for target cell types. In this review, we explore adeno-associated virus (AAV), lentiviral, and adenoviral (Ad)-based vectors as delivery vehicles. Both gene addition and gene editing strategies are compared to best design treatments for lung diseases resulting from pathogenic variants in the SFTPB, SFTPC, and ABCA3 genes.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 283
Eric J. Mallack ◽  
Kerry Gao ◽  
Marc Engelen ◽  
Stephan Kemp

The progressive neurometabolic disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is caused by pathogenic variants in the ABCD1 gene, which encodes the peroxisomal ATP-binding transporter for very-long-chain fatty acids. The clinical spectrum of ALD includes adrenal insufficiency, myelopathy, and/or leukodystrophy. A complicating factor in disease management is the absence of a genotype–phenotype correlation in ALD. Since 1999, most ABCD1 (likely) pathogenic and benign variants have been reported in the ABCD1 Variant Database. In 2017, following the expansion of ALD newborn screening, the database was rebuilt. To add an additional level of confidence with respect to pathogenicity, for each variant, it now also reports the number of cases identified and, where available, experimental data supporting the pathogenicity of the variant. The website also provides information on a number of ALD-related topics in several languages. Here, we provide an updated analysis of the known variants in ABCD1. The order of pathogenic variant frequency, overall clustering of disease-causing variants in exons 1–2 (transmembrane domain spanning region) and 6–9 (ATP-binding domain), and the most commonly reported pathogenic variant p.Gln472Argfs*83 in exon 5 are consistent with the initial reports of the mutation database. Novel insights include nonrandom clustering of high-density missense variant hotspots within exons 1, 2, 6, 8, and 9. Perhaps more importantly, we illustrate the importance of collaboration and utility of the database as a scientific, clinical, and ALD-community-wide resource.

Christina L. Elling ◽  
Melissa A. Scholes ◽  
Sven-Olrik Streubel ◽  
Eric D. Larson ◽  
Todd M. Wine ◽  

Otitis media (OM) is a leading cause of childhood hearing loss. Variants in FUT2, which encodes alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase, were identified to increase susceptibility to OM, potentially through shifts in the middle ear (ME) or nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiotas as mediated by transcriptional changes. Greater knowledge of differences in relative abundance of otopathogens in carriers of pathogenic variants can help determine risk for OM in patients. In order to determine the downstream effects of FUT2 variation, we examined gene expression in relation to carriage of a common pathogenic FUT2 c.461G>A (p.Trp154*) variant using RNA-sequence data from saliva samples from 28 patients with OM. Differential gene expression was also examined in bulk mRNA and single-cell RNA-sequence data from wildtype mouse ME mucosa after inoculation with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). In addition, microbiotas were profiled from ME and NP samples of 65 OM patients using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In human carriers of the FUT2 variant, FN1, KMT2D, MUC16 and NBPF20 were downregulated while MTAP was upregulated. Post-infectious expression in the mouse ME recapitulated these transcriptional differences, with the exception of Fn1 upregulation after NTHi-inoculation. In the NP, Candidate Division TM7 was associated with wildtype genotype (FDR-adj-p=0.009). Overall, the FUT2 c.461G>A variant was associated with transcriptional changes in processes related to response to infection and with increased load of potential otopathogens in the ME and decreased commensals in the NP. These findings provide increased understanding of how FUT2 variants influence gene transcription and the mucosal microbiota, and thus contribute to the pathology of OM.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Danielle de Paula Moreira ◽  
Angela May Suzuki ◽  
André Luiz Teles e Silva ◽  
Elisa Varella-Branco ◽  
Maria Cecília Zorél Meneghetti ◽  

Biallelic pathogenic variants in TBCK cause encephaloneuropathy, infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facies 3 (IHPRF3). The molecular mechanisms underlying its neuronal phenotype are largely unexplored. In this study, we reported two sisters, who harbored biallelic variants in TBCK and met diagnostic criteria for IHPRF3. We provided evidence that TBCK may play an important role in the early secretory pathway in neuroprogenitor cells (iNPC) differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Lack of functional TBCK protein in iNPC is associated with impaired endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi vesicle transport and autophagosome biogenesis, as well as altered cell cycle progression and severe impairment in the capacity of migration. Alteration in these processes, which are crucial for neurogenesis, neuronal migration, and cytoarchitecture organization, may represent an important causative mechanism of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative phenotypes observed in IHPRF3. Whether reduced mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is secondary to impaired TBCK function over other secretory transport regulators still needs further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. e654
Melissa Nel ◽  
Amokelani C. Mahungu ◽  
Nomakhosazana Monnakgotla ◽  
Gerrit R. Botha ◽  
Nicola J. Mulder ◽  

Background and ObjectivesTo perform the first screen of 44 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) genes in a cohort of African genetic ancestry individuals with ALS using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data.MethodsOne hundred three consecutive cases with probable/definite ALS (using the revised El Escorial criteria), and self-categorized as African genetic ancestry, underwent WGS using various Illumina platforms. As population controls, 238 samples from various African WGS data sets were included. Our analysis was restricted to 44 ALS genes, which were curated for rare sequence variants and classified according to the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines as likely benign, uncertain significance, likely pathogenic, or pathogenic variants.ResultsThirteen percent of 103 ALS cases harbored pathogenic variants; 5 different SOD1 variants (N87S, G94D, I114T, L145S, and L145F) in 5 individuals (5%, 1 familial case), pathogenic C9orf72 repeat expansions in 7 individuals (7%, 1 familial case) and a likely pathogenic ANXA11 (G38R) variant in 1 individual. Thirty individuals (29%) harbored ≥1 variant of uncertain significance; 10 of these variants had limited pathogenic evidence, although this was insufficient to permit confident classification as pathogenic.DiscussionOur findings show that known ALS genes can be expected to identify a genetic cause of disease in >11% of sporadic ALS cases of African genetic ancestry. Similar to European cohorts, the 2 most frequent genes harboring pathogenic variants in this population group are C9orf72 and SOD1.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document