pigment epithelium
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-30
Yuan-Yuan Gao ◽  
Jie Huang ◽  
Wu-Jun Li ◽  
Yang Yu ◽  

AIM: To investigate the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in photoinduced injuries in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and how Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) contributes to the increased of RPE cells to photoinduced autophagy. METHODS: In vitro cultures of human RPE strains (ARPE-19) were prepared and randomly divided into the blank control, model, low-dose LBP, middle-dose LBP, high-dose LBP, and 3-methyladenine (3MA) groups. The viability of the RPE cells and apoptosis levels in each group were tested through cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) method with a flow cytometer (Annexin V/PI double staining technique). The expression levels of LC3II, LC3I, and P62 proteins were detected with the immunofluorescence method. The expression levels of beclin1, LC3, P62, PI3K, P-mTOR, mTOR, P-Akt, and Akt proteins were tested through Western blot. RESULTS: LBP considerably strengthens cell viability and inhibits the apoptosis of RPE cells after photoinduction. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway is activated because of the upregulation of the phosphorylation levels of Akt and mTOR proteins, and thus autophagy is inhibited. CONCLUSION: LBP can inhibit the excessive autophagy in RPE cells by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways and thereby protect RPE cells from photoinduced injuries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Zhe Zhu ◽  
Jun Xiao ◽  
Lifu Luo ◽  
Bo Yang ◽  
He Zou ◽  

Abstract Background Herein, we report two cases of unilateral retinal pigment epithelium dysgenesis (URPED) in Chinese patients and explore the relationship between URPED and combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (CHRRPE). Case presentation The lesion margins in the two cases showed pathognomonic clinical features of URPED, namely, a scalloped reticular margin in hyperplastic retinal pigment epithelium and mild fibrosis. The hypoautofluorescence observed by fundus autofluorescence was inverted compared with that observed by fundus fluorescence angiography. A large amount of fibroglial proliferation and disorganization of the retina involving the whole layer, which are also found in peripapillary CHRRPE, were found in the lesions. Conclusions URPED appears to share some clinical features with CHRRPE, and the relationship between URPED and CHRRPE needs further study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 922
Małgorzata B. Różanowska ◽  
Bartosz Różanowski

Retinal lipofuscin accumulates with age in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), where its fluorescence properties are used to assess retinal health. It was observed that there is a decrease in lipofuscin fluorescence above the age of 75 years and in the early stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of lipofuscin isolated from human RPE and lipofuscin-laden cells to visible light, and to determine whether an abundant component of lipofuscin, docosahexaenoate (DHA), can contribute to lipofuscin fluorescence upon oxidation. Exposure of lipofuscin to visible light leads to a decrease in its long-wavelength fluorescence at about 610 nm, with a concomitant increase in the short-wavelength fluorescence. The emission spectrum of photodegraded lipofuscin exhibits similarity with that of oxidized DHA. Exposure of lipofuscin-laden cells to light leads to a loss of lipofuscin granules from cells, while retaining cell viability. The spectral changes in fluorescence in lipofuscin-laden cells resemble those seen during photodegradation of isolated lipofuscin. Our results demonstrate that fluorescence emission spectra, together with quantitation of the intensity of long-wavelength fluorescence, can serve as a marker useful for lipofuscin quantification and for monitoring its oxidation, and hence useful for screening the retina for increased oxidative damage and early AMD-related changes.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 159
Hao-Yu Tsai ◽  
Henkie Isahwan Ahmad Mulyadi Lai ◽  
Zhang-Yuan Chen ◽  
Tai-Chi Lin ◽  
Winnie Khor ◽  

Autophagy plays a protective role in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by eliminating damaged organelles in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dual-specificity protein phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), which belongs to the DUSP subfamily, works as a negative-feedback regulator of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. However, the complex interplay between DUSP6 and autophagy induced by ROS in RPE is yet to be investigated. To investigate the relationship between DUSP6 and autophagy, we exposed the ARPE-19 cell line and C57BL/6N mice to sodium iodate (NaIO3) as an oxidative stress inducer. Our data showed that the inhibition of DUSP6 activity promotes autophagy flux through the ERK pathway via the upregulation of immunoblotting expression in ARPE-19 cells. Live imaging showed a significant increase in autophagic flux activities, which suggested the restoration autophagy after treatment with the DUSP6 inhibitor. Furthermore, the mouse RPE layer exhibited an irregular structure and abnormal deposits following NaIO3 injection. The retina layer was recovered after being treated with DUSP6 inhibitor; this suggests that DUSP6 inhibitor can rescue retinal damage by restoring the mouse retina’s autophagy flux. This study suggests that the upregulation of DUSP6 can cause autophagy flux malfunctions in the RPE. The DUSP6 inhibitor can restore autophagy induction, which may serve as a potential therapeutic approach for retinal degeneration disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Paul J. Steptoe ◽  
Ian Pearce ◽  
Nicholas A.V. Beare ◽  
Sreekanth Sreekantam ◽  
Bashar R. Mohammed ◽  

PurposeTo reassess the underlying pathophysiology of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) and relentless placoid chorioretinitis (RPC) through comparison with the non-inoculated eye of the von Szily animal model of neurotropic viral retinal infection.MethodsNarrative review.ResultsLiterature reports of isolated neurotropic viral entities and rising serological viral titers in APMPPE after presentation support a potential direct infective etiology. In general, viral transport along axons results in mitochondrial stasis and disruption of axoplasmic flow. Clinical manifestations of axoplasmic flow disruption in APMPPE/RPC may signify the passage of virus along the neuronal pathway. From a case series of 11 patients, we demonstrate a timely, spatial, and proportional association of optic disc swelling with APMPPE lesion occurrence. Signs within the inner retina appear to precede outer retinal lesions; and acute areas of outer nuclear layer (ONL) hyperreflectivity appear to be the result of coalescence of multiple hyperreflective foci resembling axonal spheroids (which occur as a consequence of axoplasmic disruption) and follow the Henle fiber layer neurons. Underlying areas of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) hyper-autofluorescence follow ONL hyperreflectivity and may signify localized infection. Areas of apparent choriocapillaris hypoperfusion mirror areas of RPE/Bruch’s membrane separation and appear secondary to tractional forces above. Increases in choroidal thickness with lesion occurrence and focal areas of choriocapillaris hypoperfusion are observed in both APMPPE/RPC and the von Szily model.ConclusionsThe neurotrophic infection model provides significant advantages over the existing primary choriocapillaris ischemia hypothesis to account for the range of imaging signs observed in APMPPE and RPC.

2022 ◽  
Konstantinos Balaskas ◽  
Sophie Glinton ◽  
Tiarnan Keenan ◽  
Livia Faes ◽  
Bart Liefers ◽  

Abstract Objective: Predict visual function with machine-learning applied to automatically acquired quantitative imaging biomarkers in geographic atrophyDesign: Post-hoc analysis of data from a clinical trial and routine clinical care.Methods: Automated segmentation of OCT scans from 476 eyes (325 patients) with geographic atrophy. Machine learning modelling of resultant quantitative OCT (qOCT) biomarkers to predict cross-sectional visual acuity under both standard luminance (VA) and low luminance (LLVA) conditions.Main Outcome Measure: Correlation coefficient (R2) and mean absolute error (MAE) for cross-sectional VA and LLVA in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters.Results: Best-corrected VA under both standard luminance (R2 0.46 MAE 10.2 ETDRS letters) and low-luminance conditions (R2 0.25 MAE 12.1) could be predicted. The foveal region contributed the most (46.5%) toward model performance, with retinal pigment epithelium loss and outer retinal atrophy contributing the most (31.1%). For LLVA, however, features in the non-foveal regions were most important (74.5%), led by photoreceptor degeneration (38.9%).Conclusions: Our method of automatic qOCT segmentation demonstrates functional significance for vision in geographic atrophy, including LLVA. LLVA is itself predictive of geographic atrophy progression, implying that the predictive qOCT biomarkers provided by our model are also prognostic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Fukutaro Mano ◽  
Koji Sugioka ◽  
Kazuki Kuniyoshi ◽  
Hiroyuki Kondo ◽  
Shunji Kusaka

Abstract Background This case report describes the surgical outcome in a patient with congenital X-linked retinoschisis (CXLRS) and the results of proteomic analysis of surgically extracted samples from both vitreous and intraschisis cavities by mass spectrometry. Case presentation A 3-month-old boy presented with extensive retinoschisis involving macula and retinal periphery in both eyes. Genetic analysis confirmed retinoschisin 1 mutation (c.554C > T), and an electroretinogram showed significant reduction of b-wave and decreased cone and rod responses, which led to a diagnosis of CXLRS. By performing pars plana vitrectomy, including inner wall retinectomy, clear visual axes with stable retinal conditions and functional vision in both eyes were obtained during the 4 years of follow-up. Proteomic analysis of surgically retrieved fluid from the intraschisis cavity revealed a higher expression of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) than that from the vitreous humor. However, both samples showed equal levels of albumin, transferrin, and pigment epithelium-derived factor. Conclusions Cellular adhesive imperfection in CXLRS may cause IRBP diffusion from the interphotoreceptor matrix, resulting in the strong expression of IRBP in the intraschisis cavity. An impaired retinoid cycle caused by an absence of IRBP in the retina may potentially underlie the pathology of CXLRS.

2022 ◽  
Xiaomin Zhang ◽  
Chuanzhen Zheng ◽  
Kaixuan Wang ◽  
Kailei Guo ◽  
Qingqin Tao ◽  

Abstract IntroductionThe aim of this study was to report the clinical profile and outcomes of retinal pigment epithelial detachment (PED) in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease, and to evaluate the correlation between PED and the subsequent development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) throughout the whole corticosteroid treatment course.materials and methodsA total of 470 eyes with VKH were reviewed, and 12 eyes with VKH and PED were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups according to the CSC onset or not throughout the whole course (CSC group and non-CSC group). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improvement, and PED angle (PEDA, the angle between the two lines of the vertex of the lifted retinal pigment epithelium to the two edge points of the Bruch membrane) were compared between the two groups.ResultsThe prevalence of PED and CSC in VKH was 2.55% (12/470) and 1.06% (5/470), respectively. BCVA improvement in the non-CSC group was greater than that in the CSC group, but without a statistical difference (P=0.25). PEDA was significantly smaller in the CSC group than in the non-CSC group (P=0.03).DiscussionPEDA is an ideal parameter to reflect hydrostatic pressure and stretches for RPE. As PED predisposes to the development of CSC in selected VKH eyes, PEDA may be a valuable predictive factor for the development of CSC in VKH patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sheng-Min Lo ◽  
Yih-Shiou Hwang ◽  
Chao-Lin Liu ◽  
Chia-Ning Shen ◽  
Wei-Hsin Hong ◽  

Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a model of human uveitis, is an organ-specific, T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Autoreactive T cells can penetrate the blood-retinal barrier, which is a physical defense composed of tight junction-linked retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. RPE cells serve as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the eye since they express MHC class I and II and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Although previous studies have shown that supplementation with TLR agonists exacerbates uveitis, little is known about how TLR signaling in the RPE contributes to the development of uveitis. In this study, we isolated the RPE from EAU mice, which were induced by active immunization (aEAU) or adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells (tEAU). The expression of TLRs on RPE was determined, and both aEAU and tEAU mice exhibited induced tlr7 expression. The TLR7 agonist R848 was shown to induce aggressive disease progression, along with significantly elevated levels of the uveopathogenic cytokine IL-17. Furthermore, not only IL-17 but also R848 appeared to enhance the inflammatory response and to impair the barrier function of the RPE, indicating that TLR7 signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of EAU by affecting the behaviors of the RPE and consequently allowing the infiltration of autoreactive T cells intraocularly. Finally, local application of shRNA against TLR7 delivered by recombinant AAV effectively inhibited disease severity and reduced IFN-γ and IL-17. Our findings highlight an immunomodulatory role of RPE TLR7 in EAU development and provide a potential therapeutic strategy for autoimmune uveitis.

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