Hydrolysis Of
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Bioengineered ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 2139-2172
Reetu Saini ◽  
Anil Kumar Patel ◽  
Jitendra Kumar Saini ◽  
Chiu-Wen Chen ◽  
Sunita Varjani ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zi-Liang Guo ◽  
Mao-Xing Li ◽  
Xiao-Lin Li ◽  
Peng Wang ◽  
Wei-Gang Wang ◽  

Crocetin is an aglycone of crocin naturally occurring in saffron and produced in biological systems by hydrolysis of crocin as a bioactive metabolite. It is known to exist in several medicinal plants, the desiccative ripe fruit of the cape jasmine belonging to the Rubiaceae family, and stigmas of the saffron plant of the Iridaceae family. According to modern pharmacological investigations, crocetin possesses cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antidepressant, antiviral, anticancer, atherosclerotic, antidiabetic, and memory-enhancing properties. Although poor bioavailability hinders therapeutic applications, derivatization and formulation preparation technologies have broadened the application prospects for crocetin. To promote the research and development of crocetin, we summarized the distribution, preparation and production, total synthesis and derivatization technology, pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, drug safety, drug formulations, and preparation of crocetin.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262500
Sophie Weber ◽  
Philipp M. Grande ◽  
Lars M. Blank ◽  
Holger Klose

With their ability of CO2 fixation using sunlight as an energy source, algae and especially microalgae are moving into the focus for the production of proteins and other valuable compounds. However, the valorization of algal biomass depends on the effective disruption of the recalcitrant microalgal cell wall. Especially cell walls of Chlorella species proved to be very robust. The wall structures that are responsible for this robustness have been studied less so far. Here, we evaluate different common methods to break up the algal cell wall effectively and measure the success by protein and carbohydrate release. Subsequently, we investigate algal cell wall features playing a role in the wall’s recalcitrance towards disruption. Using different mechanical and chemical technologies, alkali catalyzed hydrolysis of the Chlorella vulgaris cells proved to be especially effective in solubilizing up to 56 wt% protein and 14 wt% carbohydrates of the total biomass. The stepwise degradation of C. vulgaris cell walls using a series of chemicals with increasingly strong conditions revealed that each fraction released different ratios of proteins and carbohydrates. A detailed analysis of the monosaccharide composition of the cell wall extracted in each step identified possible factors for the robustness of the cell wall. In particular, the presence of chitin or chitin-like polymers was indicated by glucosamine found in strong alkali extracts. The presence of highly ordered starch or cellulose was indicated by glucose detected in strong acidic extracts. Our results might help to tailor more specific efforts to disrupt Chlorella cell walls and help to valorize microalgae biomass.

An-Di Dai ◽  
Xiao-Ling Tang ◽  
Zhe-Ming Wu ◽  
Jiang-Tao Tang ◽  
Ren-Chao Zheng ◽  

Nitrilase-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2-chloronicotinonitrile (2-CN) is a promising approach for efficient synthesis of 2-chloronicotinic acid (2-CA). Development of nitrilase with ideal catalytic properties is crucial for the biosynthetic route with industrial potentail. Herein, a nitrilase from Rhodococcus zopfii ( Rz NIT), which showed much higher hydration activity than hydrolysis activity, was designed for efficient hydrolysis of 2-CN. Two residues (N165 and W167) significantly affecting the reaction specificity were precisely identified. By tuning these two residues, a single mutation of W167G with abolished hydration activity and 20-fold improved hydrolysis activity was obtained. Molecular dynamics simulation and molecular docking revealed that the mutation generated a larger binding pocket, causing the substrate 2-CN bound more deeply in the pocket and the formation of delocalized π bond between the residues W190 and Y196, which reduced the negative influence of steric hindrance and electron effect caused by chlorine substituent. With mutant W167G as biocatalyst, 100 mM 2-CN was exclusively converted into 2-CA within 16 h. The study provides useful guidance in nitrilase engineering for simultaneous improvement of reaction specificity and catalytic activity, which are highly desirable in value-added carboxylic acids production from nitriles hydrolysis. Importance 2-CA is an important building block for agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals with rapid increase in demand in recent years. It is currently manufactured from 3-cyanopyridine by chemical methods. However, during the final step of 2-CN hydrolysis under high temperature and strong alkaline conditions, by-product 2-CM was generated except for the target product, leading to low yield and tedious separation steps. Nitrilase-mediated hydrolysis is regarded as a promising alternative for 2-CA production, which proceeds under mild conditions. Nevertheless, nitrilase capable of efficient hydrolysis of 2-CN was not reported till now, since the enzymes showed either extremely low activity or surprisingly high hydration activity towards 2-CN. Herein, the reaction specificity of Rz NIT was precisely tuned through a single site mutation. The mutant exhibited remarkably enhanced hydrolysis activity without formation of by-products, providing a robust biocatalyst for 2-CA biosynthesis with industrial potential.

2022 ◽  
Yue Wang ◽  
Guijian Zhang ◽  
Xin Shi ◽  
Ming Deng ◽  
Lihong Tang ◽  

Abstract Density functional theory (DFT) is used to investigate the two-step hydrolysis mechanism of CS2. By optimizing the structure of reactants, intermediates, transition states, and products, the conclusion shows that the first step of CS2 (CS2 reacts with H2O first to form COS intermediate); The second step (COS intermediate reacts with H2O to form H2S and CO2). Therefore, hydrogen migration is crucial to the mechanism of CS2 hydrolysis. In the first step of the reaction, the rate-determining step in both the single C=S path and the double C=S path has a higher barrier of 199.9 kJ/mol, but the 127.9 kJ/mol barrier in the double C=S path has a lower barrier of 142.8 kJ/mol in the single C=S path. So the double C=S path is better. Similarly, the order of the barriers for the three paths in the second reaction is C=S path < C=S path and C=O path < C=O path. So the C=S path is better. Also, to further explore the reaction of CS2 hydrolysis, the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of the transition states was carried out. Besides, to further explain which reaction path is better, the hydrolysis kinetics of CS2 was analyzed. It was found that the hydrolysis of CS2 was an exothermic reaction, and the increase in temperature was unfavorable to the reaction. During the hydrolysis of CS2, the six reaction paths are parallel and competitive. The results will provide a new way to study the catalytic hydrolysis of CS2.

2022 ◽  
Nikita Pozdnyakov ◽  
Sergey Shilov ◽  
Alexandr Mikhailovich Lukin ◽  
Maxim Bolshakov ◽  
Evgeny Sogorin

Abstract Soy protein isolate is a worthy substitute for meat protein. However, its low level of digestibility limits its spread to new market niches. This problem can be solved by enzymatic hydrolysis of soy protein to peptides. Several research teams have already been solving this problem, but their results were obtained under laboratory conditions and do not provide information about the reproducibility of the results on an industrial scale. In this paper, we have compared the results of laboratory and semi-industrial experiments of enzymatic hydrolysis of protein. Also the kinetics of the reaction under different conditions is shown, and the final product is characterized. The obtained results of semi-industrial experiments can form the basis of industrial regulations for the production of soy protein hydrolysate as an easily digestible form of dietary protein for athletes and patients with digestive disorders.

2022 ◽  
Rafael Gomes ◽  
Juliana Pereira ◽  
João Ravasco ◽  
João Vale ◽  
Fausto Queda

The Diels-Alder (DA) reaction of biomass derived furans is an emerging technology for the preparation of new molecular entities and “drop-in” commodity chemicals. In this work we address the challenge of the direct use of electron-poor furanic platforms as dienes through the use of an unexplored chitin derived furan, 3-acetamido-5-acetylfuran (3A5AF). The 3-acetamido group promoted a remarkable increase in the kinetics of the DA allowing for the preparation of 7-oxanorbornenes (7-ONB) at 50 ºC. Partial hydrolysis of the enamide to hemi-acylaminals was possible upon fine tuning of the reaction conditions, disabling retro-DA processes. Finally, DA reaction of the reduced form of 3A5AF allowed quantitative formation of 7-ONB in aqueous condition after 10 minutes. Certanly these are the first steps for expanding the toolbox of chitin derived 3A5AF as diene.

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