fine scale mapping
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Lydia Trippler ◽  
Mohammed Nassor Ali ◽  
Shaali Makame Ame ◽  
Said Mohammed Ali ◽  
Fatma Kabole ◽  

Abstract Background Fine-scale mapping of schistosomiasis to guide micro-targeting of interventions will gain importance in elimination settings, where the heterogeneity of transmission is often pronounced. Novel mobile applications offer new opportunities for disease mapping. We provide a practical introduction and documentation of the strengths and shortcomings of GPS-based household identification and participant recruitment using tablet-based applications for fine-scale schistosomiasis mapping at sub-district level in a remote area in Pemba, Tanzania. Methods A community-based household survey for urogenital schistosomiasis assessment was conducted from November 2020 until February 2021 in 20 small administrative areas in Pemba. For the survey, 1400 housing structures were prospectively and randomly selected from shapefile data. To identify pre-selected structures and collect survey-related data, field enumerators searched for the houses’ geolocation using the mobile applications Open Data Kit (ODK) and MAPS.ME. The number of inhabited and uninhabited structures, the median distance between the pre-selected and recorded locations, and the dropout rates due to non-participation or non-submission of urine samples of sufficient volume for schistosomiasis testing was assessed. Results Among the 1400 randomly selected housing structures, 1396 (99.7%) were identified by the enumerators. The median distance between the pre-selected and recorded structures was 5.4 m. A total of 1098 (78.7%) were residential houses. Among them, 99 (9.0%) were dropped due to continuous absence of residents and 40 (3.6%) households refused to participate. In 797 (83.1%) among the 959 participating households, all eligible household members or all but one provided a urine sample of sufficient volume. Conclusions The fine-scale mapping approach using a combination of ODK and an offline navigation application installed on tablet computers allows a very precise identification of housing structures. Dropouts due to non-residential housing structures, absence, non-participation and lack of urine need to be considered in survey designs. Our findings can guide the planning and implementation of future household-based mapping or longitudinal surveys and thus support micro-targeting and follow-up of interventions for schistosomiasis control and elimination in remote areas. Trial registration ISRCTN, ISCRCTN91431493. Registered 11 February 2020,

Shirleny Romualdo Cardoso ◽  
Andrea Gillespie ◽  
Syed Haider ◽  
Olivia Fletcher

AbstractGenome-wide association studies coupled with large-scale replication and fine-scale mapping studies have identified more than 150 genomic regions that are associated with breast cancer risk. Here, we review efforts to translate these findings into a greater understanding of disease mechanism. Our review comes in the context of a recently published fine-scale mapping analysis of these regions, which reported 352 independent signals and a total of 13,367 credible causal variants. The vast majority of credible causal variants map to noncoding DNA, implicating regulation of gene expression as the mechanism by which functional variants influence risk. Accordingly, we review methods for defining candidate-regulatory sequences, methods for identifying putative target genes and methods for linking candidate-regulatory sequences to putative target genes. We provide a summary of available data resources and identify gaps in these resources. We conclude that while much work has been done, there is still much to do. There are, however, grounds for optimism; combining statistical data from fine-scale mapping with functional data that are more representative of the normal “at risk” breast, generated using new technologies, should lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms that influence an individual woman’s risk of breast cancer.

2021 ◽  
pp. 0308518X2110357
Wanjing Li ◽  
Qi Zhou ◽  
Yuheng Zhang ◽  
Yijun Chen

The rural access index is beneficial to monitor accessibility in rural areas. However, the rural access index cannot indicate how many rural people have not been served (called not served rural population or NSRP), and it has only been mapped at a national and/or regional scale. This study visualises both the rural access index and not served rural population in Africa, and also visualises the not served rural population at a fine scale (i.e. 10 km × 10 km grid). The results show that: First, the spatial pattern of the not served rural population is quite different with that of the rural access index, and thus we suggest to use the not served rural population indicator as a supplement of the rural access index. Second, the not served rural population varies within a country, and the fine-scale mapping can be helpful for policy makers and planners to decide where there is a priority need to improve rural road accessibility.

2021 ◽  
Vol 781 ◽  
pp. 146784
Yue Lin ◽  
Xinming Chen ◽  
Lingyan Huang ◽  
Congmou Zhu ◽  
AmirReza Shahtahmassebi ◽  

Jennifer A. Dijkstra ◽  
Kristen Mello ◽  
Derek Sowers ◽  
Mashkoor Malik ◽  
Les Watling ◽  

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