Cancer Risk
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Andrologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mehmet Yıldızhan ◽  
Melih Balcı ◽  
Unsal Eroğlu ◽  
Erem Asil ◽  
Seref Coser ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wen Liu ◽  
Qing Zheng ◽  
Min Zhu ◽  
Xiaohong Liu ◽  
Jingping Liu ◽  
...  

: The N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a wide range of health benefits, including anti-inflammatory effects, improvements in lipids metabolism and promoting insulin secretion, as well as reduction of cancer risk. Numerous studies support that N-3 PUFAs have the potentials to improve many metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity, which are attributable to N-3 PUFAs mediated enhancement of insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells and improvements in insulin sensitivity and metabolic disorders in peripheral insulin-sensitive tissues such as liver, muscles, and adipose tissue. In this review, we summarized the up-to-date clinical and basic studies on the regulatory effects and molecular mechanisms of N-3 PUFAs mediated benefits on pancreatic β-cells, adipose tissue, liver, and muscles in the context of glucose and/or lipid metabolic disorders. We also discussed the potential factors involved in the inconsistent results from different clinical researches of N-3 PUFAs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Pokkate Wongsasuluk ◽  
Aung Zaw Tun ◽  
Srilert Chotpantarat ◽  
Wattasit Siriwong

AbstractExposure to heavy metals in mining activities is a health issue among miners. This study was carried out at three small-scale gold mining sites situated in Banmauk Township, Myanmar and aims to assess the occupational health risks of small-scale gold miners who are exposed to arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in the soil through the dermal route. Soil samples were analyzed through atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The concentrations of the heavy metals in soils found As, ranged 1.04 mg/kg to 22.17 mg/kg, 0.13 mg/kg to 3.07 mg/kg for Cd, 0.15 mg/kg to 77.44 mg/kg for Hg, and 7.67 mg/kg to 210.00 mg/kg for Pb. In this study, 79% of the participants did not use any form of personal protective equipment (PPE) while working in gold mining processes. Regarding noncancer risk assessment, the results found all hazard quotient were lower than acceptable level (HQ < 1). In addition, all hazard index (HI) was lover than 1, the highest HI was found as 5.66 × 10−1 in the amalgamation process. On the other hand, the result found cancer risk ranged from 8.02 × 10−8 to 1.75 × 10−6, and the estimated cancer risks for 9 years ranged from 4.78 × 10−7 to 1.04 × 10−5. Therefore, the cancer risks of the miners were greater than the United State Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) acceptable cancer risk level, 1 × 10−6, and the miners may be at risk of developing carcinogenic diseases. The suggestion is to educate miners about the health risks of heavy metals and to encourage the use of proper PPE all the time while working in gold mine.


Author(s):  
Sule Olgun ◽  
Berna Dizer

Abstract Background Breast cancer risk increases by 80% in the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in the same family. In particular, a woman whose sister or mother has breast cancer has a 2- to 5-fold higher risk of developing breast cancer compared with other women. For this reason, recommendations should have been made regarding breast cancer prevention and/or early detection for women with first-degree family history of breast cancer. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of health education, which was provided to first-degree female relatives of breast cancer patients, on their health beliefs and behaviors. Study Design and Methods The study sample included 50 women with a first-degree relative being treated for breast cancer in the chemotherapy and radiotherapy unit of a university hospital. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. The pretest consisted of the health belief model scale and a questionnaire regarding the women’s sociodemographic information and breast cancer screening behaviors. After the pretest, the patients received health education regarding breast cancer risk factors and screening methods. The posttest was conducted 3 weeks after the education using the same assessment tools. Results After education, there were statistically significant increases in rates of practicing breast self-examination, having clinical breast examinations, and undergoing breast ultrasound/mammography compared with pretest results. Conclusions Health workers should possess knowledge and experience about breast cancer which will enable them to effectively undertake an educational role, especially for high-risk groups such as women with first-degree family history of breast cancer.


Author(s):  
Marta Hernández-García ◽  
Ana Molina-Barceló ◽  
Mercedes Vanaclocha-Espi ◽  
Óscar Zurriaga ◽  
Beatriz Pérez-Gómez ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose The variation in breast cancer (BC)-risk factor associations between screen-detected (SD) and non-screen-detected (NSD) tumors has been poorly studied, despite the interest of this aspect in risk assessment and prevention. This study analyzes the differences in breast cancer-risk factor associations according to detection method and tumor phenotype in Spanish women aged between 50 and 69. Methods We examined 900 BC cases and 896 controls aged between 50 and 69, recruited in the multicase–control MCC-Spain study. With regard to the cases, 460 were detected by screening mammography, whereas 144 were diagnosed by other means. By tumor phenotype, 591 were HR+, 153 were HER2+, and 58 were TN. Lifestyle, reproductive factors, family history of BC, and tumor characteristics were analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to compare cases vs. controls and SD vs. NSD cases. Multinomial regression models (controls used as a reference) were adjusted for case analysis according to phenotype and detection method. Results TN was associated with a lower risk of SD BC (OR 0.30 IC 0.10–0.89), as were intermediate (OR 0.18 IC 0.07–0.44) and advanced stages at diagnosis (OR 0.11 IC 0.03–0.34). Nulliparity in postmenopausal women and age at menopause were related to an increased risk of SD BC (OR 1.60 IC 1.08–2.36; OR 1.48 IC 1.09–2.00, respectively). Nulliparity in postmenopausal women was associated with a higher risk of HR+ (OR 1.66 IC 1.15–2.40). Age at menopause was related to a greater risk of HR+ (OR 1.60 IC 1.22–2.11) and HER2+ (OR 1.59 IC 1.03–2.45) tumors. Conclusion Reproductive risk factors are associated with SD BC, as are HR+ tumors. Differences in BC-risk factor associations according to detection method may be related to prevailing phenotypes among categories.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maria Stella de Biase ◽  
Florian Massip ◽  
Tzu-Ting Wei ◽  
Federico Manuel Giorgi ◽  
Rory Stark ◽  
...  

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. In contrast to many other cancers, a direct connection to lifestyle risk in the form of cigarette smoke has long been established. More than 50% of all smoking-related lung cancers occur in former smokers, often many years after smoking cessation. Despite extensive research, the molecular processes for persistent lung cancer risk are unclear. CT screening of current and former smokers has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality by up to 26%. To examine whether clinical risk stratification can be improved upon by the addition of genetic data, and to explore the mechanisms of the persisting risk in former smokers, we have analyzed transcriptomic data from accessible airway tissues of 487 subjects. We developed a model to assess smoking associated gene expression changes and their reversibility after smoking is stopped, in both healthy subjects and clinic patients. We find persistent smoking-associated immune alterations to be a hallmark of the clinic patients. Integrating previous GWAS data using a transcriptional network approach, we demonstrate that the same immune and interferon related pathways are strongly enriched for genes linked to known genetic risk factors, demonstrating a causal relationship between immune alteration and lung cancer risk. Finally, we used accessible airway transcriptomic data to derive a non-invasive lung cancer risk classifier. Our results provide initial evidence for germline-mediated personalised smoke injury response and risk in the general population, with potential implications for managing long-term lung cancer incidence and mortality.


2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (6) ◽  
pp. 799-812
Author(s):  
Dae-Seok Kim ◽  
Philipp E. Scherer

Rates of obesity and diabetes have increased significantly over the past decades and the prevalence is expected to continue to rise further in the coming years. Many observations suggest that obesity and diabetes are associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancers, including liver, pancreatic, endometrial, colorectal, and post-menopausal breast cancer. The path towards developing obesity and diabetes is affected by multiple factors, including adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, growth hormones, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. The metabolic abnormalities associated with changes in the levels of these factors in obesity and diabetes have the potential to significantly contribute to the development and progression of cancer through the regulation of distinct signaling pathways. Here, we highlight the cellular and molecular pathways that constitute the links between obesity, diabetes, cancer risk and mortality. This includes a description of the existing evidence supporting the obesity-driven morphological and functional alternations of cancer cells and adipocytes through complex interactions within the tumor microenvironment.


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