British Journal of Cancer
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Published By Springer Nature

1532-1827, 0007-0920
Updated Wednesday, 27 October 2021

Yaileen D. Guzmán-Arocho ◽  
Shoshana M. Rosenberg ◽  
Judy E. Garber ◽  
Hilde Vardeh ◽  
Philip D. Poorvu ◽  

Spinel Karas ◽  
Amy S. Etheridge ◽  
Deborah A. Nickerson ◽  
Nancy J. Cox ◽  
Karen L. Mohlke ◽  

Amanda L. Blackford ◽  
Erica J. Childs ◽  
Nancy Porter ◽  
Gloria M. Petersen ◽  
Kari G. Rabe ◽  

Sarah Ouahoud ◽  
Rutger J. Jacobs ◽  
Ludmilla L. Kodach ◽  
Philip W. Voorneveld ◽  
Lukas J. A. C. Hawinkels ◽  

Ash Kieran Clift ◽  
David Dodwell ◽  
Simon Lord ◽  
Stavros Petrou ◽  
Sir Michael Brady ◽  

AbstractApart from high-risk scenarios such as the presence of highly penetrant genetic mutations, breast screening typically comprises mammography or tomosynthesis strategies defined by age. However, age-based screening ignores the range of breast cancer risks that individual women may possess and is antithetical to the ambitions of personalised early detection. Whilst screening mammography reduces breast cancer mortality, this is at the risk of potentially significant harms including overdiagnosis with overtreatment, and psychological morbidity associated with false positives. In risk-stratified screening, individualised risk assessment may inform screening intensity/interval, starting age, imaging modality used, or even decisions not to screen. However, clear evidence for its benefits and harms needs to be established. In this scoping review, the authors summarise the established and emerging evidence regarding several critical dependencies for successful risk-stratified breast screening: risk prediction model performance, epidemiological studies, retrospective clinical evaluations, health economic evaluations and qualitative research on feasibility and acceptability. Family history, breast density or reproductive factors are not on their own suitable for precisely estimating risk and risk prediction models increasingly incorporate combinations of demographic, clinical, genetic and imaging-related parameters. Clinical evaluations of risk-stratified screening are currently limited. Epidemiological evidence is sparse, and randomised trials only began in recent years.

Osman Öcal ◽  
Michael Ingrisch ◽  
Muzaffer Reha Ümütlü ◽  
Bora Peynircioglu ◽  
Christian Loewe ◽  

Summary Aims To investigate the prognostic value of baseline imaging features for overall survival (OS) and liver decompensation (LD) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Design Patients with advanced HCC from the SORAMIC trial were evaluated in this post hoc analysis. Several radiological imaging features were collected from baseline computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging, besides clinical values. The prognostic value of these features for OS and LD (grade 2 bilirubin increase) was quantified with univariate Cox proportional hazard models and multivariate Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression. Results Three hundred and seventy-six patients were included in this study. The treatment arm was not correlated with OS. LASSO showed satellite lesions, atypical HCC, peritumoral arterial enhancement, larger tumour size, higher albumin–bilirubin (ALBI) score, liver–spleen ratio <1.5, ascites, pleural effusion and higher bilirubin values were predictors of worse OS, and higher relative liver enhancement, smooth margin and capsule were associated with better OS. LASSO analysis for LD showed satellite lesions, peritumoral hypointensity in hepatobiliary phase, high ALBI score, higher bilirubin values and ascites were predictors of LD, while randomisation to sorafenib arm was associated with lower LD. Conclusions Imaging features showing aggressive tumour biology and poor liver function, in addition to clinical parameters, can serve as imaging biomarkers for OS and LD in patients receiving sorafenib and selective internal radiation therapy for HCC.

Yao Jiang ◽  
Andrew D. Southam ◽  
Sandro Trova ◽  
Flavio Beke ◽  
Bader Alhazmi ◽  

Abstract Background We previously demonstrated the in vitro killing of AML cells by the combination of the lipid-lowering agent bezafibrate (BEZ) and the contraceptive hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). A phase II trial demonstrated in vivo safety and efficacy of BEZ and MPA (BaP) in elderly, relapsed/refractory AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. However, we observed dose-limiting toxicities in a second trial that attempted to improve outcomes via escalation of BaP doses. Thus we sought to identify a third repurposed drug that potentiates activity of low dose BaP (BaP 0.1 mM). Methods and Results We demonstrate that addition of a commonly used anti-epileptic, valproic acid (VAL) to low dose BaP (BaP 0.1 mM)(VBaP) enhanced killing of AML cell lines/primary AML cells to levels similar to high dose BaP (BaP 0.5 mM). Similarly, addition of VAL to BaP 0.1 mM enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis. Overexpression of Nrf2 in K562 and KG1a completely inhibited ROS production and rescued cells from VAL/BaP 0.1 mM/VBaP killing. Conclusions Given the good safety data of low-dose BaP in elderly/relapsed/refractory AML patients, and that VAL alone is well-tolerated, we propose VBaP as a novel therapeutic combination for AML.

Jarlath C. Bolger ◽  
Claire L. Donohoe ◽  
Maeve Lowery ◽  
John V. Reynolds

AbstractThe incidence of oesophageal cancer, in particular adenocarcinoma, has markedly increased over the last four decades with adenocarcinoma becoming the dominant subtype in the West, and mortality rates are high. Nevertheless, overall survival of patients with oesophageal cancer has doubled in the past 20 years, with earlier diagnosis and improved treatments benefiting those patients who can be treated with curative intent. Advances in endotherapy, surgical approaches, and multimodal and other combination therapies have been reported. New vistas have emerged in targeted therapies and immunotherapy, informed by new knowledge in genomics and molecular biology, which present opportunities for personalised cancer therapy and novel clinical trials. This review focuses exclusively on the curative intent treatment pathway, and highlights emerging advances.

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