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Published By Springer Nature

1532-1827, 0007-0920
Updated Wednesday, 28 July 2021

Author(s):  
Zhigeng Zou ◽  
Wei Zheng ◽  
Hongjun Fan ◽  
Guodong Deng ◽  
Shih-Hsin Lu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are related to the patient’s prognosis, recurrence and therapy resistance in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Although increasing evidence suggests that aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) could lower the incidence and improve the prognosis of ESCC, the mechanism(s) remains to be fully understood. Methods We investigated the role of ASA in chemotherapy/chemoprevention in human ESCC cell lines and an N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced rat ESCC carcinogenesis model. The effects of combined treatment with ASA/cisplatin on ESCC cell lines were examined in vitro and in vivo. Sphere-forming cells enriched with putative CSCs (pCSCs) were used to investigate the effect of ASA in CSCs. Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) was performed to determine the alterations in chromatin accessibility caused by ASA in ESCC cells. Results ASA inhibits the CSC properties and enhances cisplatin treatment in human ESCC cells. ATAC-seq indicates that ASA treatment results in remarkable epigenetic alterations on chromatin in ESCC cells, especially their pCSCs, through the modification of histone acetylation levels. The epigenetic changes activate Bim expression and promote cell death in CSCs of ESCC. Furthermore, ASA prevents the carcinogenesis of NMBzA-induced ESCC in the rat model. Conclusions ASA could be a potential chemotherapeutic adjuvant and chemopreventive drug for ESCC treatment.


Author(s):  
Susanna C. Larsson ◽  
Wei-Hsuan Lee ◽  
Siddhartha Kar ◽  
Stephen Burgess ◽  
Elias Allara

Author(s):  
M. A. McAteer ◽  
J. P. B. O’Connor ◽  
D. M. Koh ◽  
H. Y. Leung ◽  
S. J. Doran ◽  
...  

SummaryThe National Cancer Imaging Translational Accelerator (NCITA) is creating a UK national coordinated infrastructure for accelerated translation of imaging biomarkers for clinical use. Through the development of standardised protocols, data integration tools and ongoing training programmes, NCITA provides a unique scalable infrastructure for imaging biomarker qualification using multicentre clinical studies.


Author(s):  
David J. Byun ◽  
Aram S. Modrek ◽  
Erik P. Sulman
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Alexandra M. Zaborowski ◽  
Des C. Winter ◽  
Lydia Lynch

AbstractColorectal cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The therapeutic field of immuno-oncology has rapidly gained momentum, with strikingly promising results observed in clinical practice. Increasing emphasis has been placed on the role of the immune response in tumorigenesis, therapy and predicting prognosis. Enhanced understanding of the dynamic and complex tumour-immune microenvironment has enabled the development of molecularly directed, individualised treatment. Analysis of intra-tumoural lymphocyte infiltration and the dichotomisation of colorectal cancer into microsatellite stable and unstable disease has important therapeutic and prognostic implications, with potential to capitalise further on this data. This review discusses the latest evidence surrounding the tumour biology and immune landscape of colorectal cancer, novel immunotherapies and the interaction of the immune system with each apex of the tripartite of cancer management (oncotherapeutics, radiotherapy and surgery). By utilising the synergy of chemotherapeutic agents and immunotherapies, and identifying prognostic and predictive immunological biomarkers, we may enter an era of unprecedented disease control, survivorship and cure rates.


Author(s):  
Ramona Rudalska ◽  
Lars Zender ◽  
Daniel Dauch

SummaryMetabolic alterations occur frequently in solid tumours, but metabolic cancer therapies are limited by the complexity and plasticity of metabolic networks. We could recently show that activation of the liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and inhibition of a Raf-1-SCD1 protein complex induces an intracellular accumulation of saturated free fatty acids leading to lethal lipotoxicity in tumour cells and allows for an efficient treatment of liver carcinomas.


Author(s):  
Bingnan Zhang ◽  
Kavya Ramkumar ◽  
Robert John Cardnell ◽  
Carl Michael Gay ◽  
C. Allison Stewart ◽  
...  

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