British Journal of Cancer
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Published By Springer Nature

1532-1827, 0007-0920

Author(s):  
Trasias Mukama ◽  
Renée Turzanski Fortner ◽  
Verena Katzke ◽  
Lucas Cory Hynes ◽  
Agnese Petrera ◽  
...  

Abstract Background CA125 is the best available yet insufficiently sensitive biomarker for early detection of ovarian cancer. There is a need to identify novel biomarkers, which individually or in combination with CA125 can achieve adequate sensitivity and specificity for the detection of earlier-stage ovarian cancer. Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we measured serum levels of 92 preselected proteins for 91 women who had blood sampled ≤18 months prior to ovarian cancer diagnosis, and 182 matched controls. We evaluated the discriminatory performance of the proteins as potential early diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer. Results Nine of the 92 markers; CA125, HE4, FOLR1, KLK11, WISP1, MDK, CXCL13, MSLN and ADAM8 showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of ≥0.70 for discriminating between women diagnosed with ovarian cancer and women who remained cancer-free. All, except ADAM8, had shown at least equal discrimination in previous case-control comparisons. The discrimination of the biomarkers, however, was low for the lag-time of >9–18 months and paired combinations of CA125 with any of the 8 markers did not improve discrimination compared to CA125 alone. Conclusion Using pre-diagnostic serum samples, this study identified markers with good discrimination for the lag-time of 0–9 months. However, the discrimination was low in blood samples collected more than 9 months prior to diagnosis, and none of the markers showed major improvement in discrimination when added to CA125.


Author(s):  
M. Cisneros-Villanueva ◽  
L. Hidalgo-Pérez ◽  
M. Rios-Romero ◽  
A. Cedro-Tanda ◽  
C. A. Ruiz-Villavicencio ◽  
...  

AbstractCell-free DNA (cfDNA) analysis represents a promising method for the diagnosis, treatment selection and clinical follow-up of cancer patients. Although its general methodological feasibility and usefulness has been demonstrated, several issues related to standardisation and technical validation must be addressed for its routine clinical application in cancer. In this regard, most cfDNA clinical applications are still limited to clinical trials, proving its value in several settings. In this paper, we review the current clinical trials involving cfDNA/ctDNA analysis and highlight those where it has been useful for patient stratification, treatment follow-up or development of novel approaches for early diagnosis. Our query included clinical trials, including the terms ‘cfDNA’, ‘ctDNA’, ‘liquid biopsy’ AND ‘cancer OR neoplasm’ in the FDA and EMA public databases. We identified 1370 clinical trials (FDA = 1129, EMA = 241) involving liquid-biopsy analysis in cancer. These clinical trials show promising results for the early detection of cancer and confirm cfDNA as a tool for real-time monitoring of acquired therapy resistance, accurate disease-progression surveillance and improvement of treatment, situations that result in a better quality of life and extended overall survival for cancer patients.


Author(s):  
Sharmila Rana ◽  
Gabriel N. Valbuena ◽  
Ed Curry ◽  
Charlotte L. Bevan ◽  
Hector C. Keun

Abstract Background Reliable prognostic biomarkers to distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) are lacking. Many studies investigated microRNAs (miRs) as PCa prognostic biomarkers, often reporting inconsistent findings. We present a systematic review of these; also systematic reanalysis of public miR-profile datasets to identify tissue-derived miRs prognostic of biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods Independent PubMed searches were performed for relevant articles from January 2007 to December 2019. For the review, 128 studies were included. Pooled-hazard-ratios (HRs) for miRs in multiple studies were calculated using a random-effects model (REM). For the reanalysis, five studies were included and Cox proportional-hazard models, testing miR association with BCR, performed for miRs profiled in all. Results Systematic review identified 120 miRs as prognostic. Five (let-7b-5p, miR-145-5p, miR152-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-224-5p) were consistently associated with progression in multiple cohorts/studies. In the reanalysis, ten (let-7a-5p, miR-148a-3p, miR-203a-3p, miR-26b-5p, miR30a-3p, miR-30c-5p, miR-30e-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-425-3p, miR-582-5p) were significantly prognostic of BCR. Of these, miR-148a-3p (HR = 0.80/95% CI = 0.68-0.94) and miR-582-5p (HR = 0.73/95% CI = 0.61-0.87) were also reported in prior publication(s) in the review. Conclusions Fifteen miRs were consistently associated with disease progression in multiple publications or datasets. Further research into their biological roles is warranted to support investigations into their performance as prognostic PCa biomarkers.


Author(s):  
Tim Nestler ◽  
Priya Dalvi ◽  
Friederike Haidl ◽  
Maike Wittersheim ◽  
Melanie von Brandenstein ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) have a high metastasis rate. However, the mechanisms related to their invasion, progression and metastasis are unclear. Therefore, we investigated gene expression changes that might be linked to metastasis in seminomatous testicular germ cell tumour (STGCT) patients. Methods Defined areas [invasive tumour front (TF) and tumour centre (TC)] of non-metastatic (with surveillance and recurrence-free follow-up >2 years) and metastatic STGCTs were collected separately using laser capture microdissection. The expression of 760 genes related to tumour progression and metastasis was analysed using nCounter technology and validated with quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Distinct gene expression patterns were observed in metastatic and non-metastatic seminomas with respect to both the TF and TC. Comprehensive pathway analysis showed enrichment of genes related to tumour functions such as inflammation, angiogenesis and metabolism at the TF compared to the TC. Remarkably, prominent inflammatory and cancer-related pathways, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling, integrin signalling and nuclear factor-κB signalling, were significantly upregulated in the TF of metastatic vs non-metastatic tumours. Conclusions IL-6 signalling was the most significantly upregulated pathway in metastatic vs non-metastatic tumours and therefore could constitute a therapeutic target for future personalised therapy. In addition, this is the first study showing intra- and inter-tumour heterogeneity in STGCT.


Author(s):  
Thuy Ngan Tran ◽  
Marc Peeters ◽  
Sarah Hoeck ◽  
Guido Van Hal ◽  
Sharon Janssens ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Interval cancer (IC) is a critical issue in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We identified factors associated with ICs after faecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening and explored the impact of lowering FIT cut-off or shortening screening interval on FIT-ICs in Flanders. Methods FIT participants diagnosed with a CRC during 2013–2018 were included. Factors associated with FIT-ICs were identified using logistic regression. Distributions of FIT results among FIT-ICs were examined. Results In total, 10,122 screen-detected CRCs and 1534 FIT-ICs were included (FIT-IC proportion of 13%). FIT-ICs occurred more frequently in women (OR 1.58 [95% CI 1.41–1.76]) and ages 70–74 (OR 1.35 [1.14–1.59]). FIT-ICs were more often right-sided (OR 3.53 [2.98–4.20]), advanced stage (stage IV: OR 7.15 [5.76–8.88]), and high grade (poorly/undifferentiated: OR 2.57 [2.08–3.18]). The majority (83–92%) of FIT-ICs would still be missed if FIT cut-off was lowered from 15 to 10 µg Hb/g or screening interval was shortened from 2 to 1 year. Conclusions FIT-ICs were more common in women, older age, right-sided location, advanced stage and high grade. In Flanders, lowering FIT cut-off (to 10 µg Hb/g) or shortening screening interval (to 1 year) would have a minimal impact on FIT-ICs.


Author(s):  
Nicole A. Seebacher

SummaryCancer patients with COVID-19 have reduced survival. While most cancer patients, like the general population, have an almost 100% rate of seroconversion after COVID-19 infection or vaccination, patients with haematological malignancies have lower seroconversion rates and are far less likely to gain adequate protection. This raises the concern that patients with haematological malignancies, especially those receiving immunosuppressive therapies, may still develop the fatal disease when infected with COVID-19 after vaccination. There is an urgent need to develop Guidelines to help direct vaccination schedules and protective measures in oncology patients, differentiating those with haematological malignancies and those in an immunocompromised state.


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