Target Genes
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2021 ◽  
Zhiyi Shen ◽  
Yongkai Yu ◽  
Yuqian Yang ◽  
Xiao Xiao ◽  
Tong Sun ◽  

Abstract Purpose. - Pancreatic β-cell failure is a central hallmark of the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus; however, the molecular basis underlying chronic inflammation-caused β-cell failure remains unclear. This study reported here specifically assessed the association between miR-25/miR-92b family and β-cell failure in diabetes.Methods. - IL-1β and two additional ER stress activators, palmitate and tunicamycin were applied to evaluate the expression level miR-25 by Taqman® RT-PCR. Glucose- and potassium-stimulated insulin secretion assays were performed to assess β-cell function. Dual luciferase activity, and western blotting assays were utilized for miR-25 target gene verification. CCK-8 and TUNEL staining were used to evaluate β-cell viability and apoptosis.Results. – miRNA ChIP identified the increased level of miR-25 in INS-1 cells by IL-1β treatment. Expression levels of miR-25 were significantly upregulated with the treatment of IL-1β, palmitate or tunicamycin in both INS-1 cells and human islets. Ectopic elevation of miR-25 recapitulated most featured β-cell defects caused by IL-1β, including inhibition of insulin biosynthesis and increased β-cell apoptosis. These detrimental effects of miR-25 relied on its seed sequence recognition and repressed expression of its target genes Neurod1 and Mcl1. The miR-25/NEUROD1 axis reduced insulin biosynthesis via transcriptional regulation of β-cell specific genes. The miR-25/MCL1 axis caused β-cell apoptosis in a caspase 3/PARP1-dependent manner. Comparable impairments were generated by miR-92b and miR-25, emphasizing the redundant biological roles of miRNA family members with the same seed sequence. Conclusion. - MiR-25/miR-92b family plays a major role in β-cell failure occurring under inflammation and diabetes states.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Wei Wei ◽  
Wenqiang Xin ◽  
Yufeng Tang ◽  
Zhonglun Chen ◽  
Yue Heng ◽  

Stroke is an acute cerebrovascular disease, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Stroke is the second leading cause of death after ischemic heart disease, which accounts for 9% of the global death toll. To explore the molecular mechanisms of the effects of the dysregulated factors, in the GEO database, we obtained transcriptome data from 24 h/72 h of mice with ischemic stroke and 24 h/72 h of normal mice. We then performed differential gene analysis, coexpression analysis, enrichment analysis, and regulator prediction bioinformatics analysis to identify the potential genes. We made a comparison between the ischemic stroke 72 h and the ischemic stroke for 24 h, and 5103 differential genes were obtained ( p < 0.05 ). Four functional barrier modules were obtained by weighted gene coexpression network analysis. The critical genes of each module were ASTL, Zfp472, Fmr1 gene, and Nap1l1. The results of the enrichment analysis showed ncRNA metabolism, microRNAs in cancer, and biosynthesis of amino acids. These three functions and pathways have the most considerable count value. The regulators of the regulatory dysfunction module were predicted by pivotal analysis of TF and noncoding RNA, and critical regulators including NFKB1 (NF-κB1), NFKBIA, CTNNB1, and SP1 were obtained. Finally, the pivotal target gene found that CTNNB1, NFKB1, NFKBia, and Sp1 are involved in 18, 32, 2, and 60 target genes, respectively. Therefore, we believe that NFKB1 and Sp1 have a potential role in the progression of ischemic stroke. The NFKB signaling pathway promotes inflammatory cytokines and regulates the progression of ischemic stroke.

Hongyu Li ◽  
Xin Shen ◽  
Mengjun Ma ◽  
Wenzhou Liu ◽  
Wen Yang ◽  

Abstract Background The zinc transporters Zrt- and Irt-related protein (ZIP/SLC39) are overexpressed in human tumors and correlate with poor prognosis; however, their contributions to carcinogenesis and chemoresistance in osteosarcoma (OS) remain unclear. Methods We collected 64 OS patient tissues with (n = 12) or without (n = 52) chemotherapy. The expression levels of ZIP10 were measured by immunohistochemistry and applied to prognostic analysis. ZIP10 was knocked down or overexpressed in OS cell lines to explore its effect on proliferation and chemoresistance. RNA sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting analysis were performed to explore ZIP10-regulated downstream target genes. A xenograft mouse model was established to evaluate the mechanisms by which ZIP10 modulates chemoresistance in OS cells. Results The expression of ZIP10 was significantly induced by chemotherapy and highly associated with the clinical outcomes of OS. Knockdown of ZIP10 suppressed OS cell proliferation and chemoresistance. In addition, ZIP10 promoted Zn content-induced cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and activation, which are required for integrin α10 (ITGA10) transcription and ITGA10-mediated PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Importantly, ITGA10 stimulated PI3K/AKT signaling but not the classical FAK or SRC pathway. Moreover, overexpression of ZIP10 promoted ITGA10 expression and conferred chemoresistance. Treatment with the CREB inhibitor 666–15 or the PI3K/AKT inhibitor GSK690693 impaired tumor chemoresistance in ZIP10-overexpressing cells. Finally, a xenograft mouse model established by subcutaneous injection of 143B cells confirmed that ZIP10 mediates chemotherapy resistance in OS cells via the ZIP10-ITGA10-PI3K/AKT axis. Conclusions We demonstrate that ZIP10 drives OS proliferation and chemoresistance through ITGA10-mediated activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, which might serve as a target for OS treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Fan Zhang ◽  
Qi-Yu Zeng ◽  
Hao Xu ◽  
Ai-Ning Xu ◽  
Dian-Jia Liu ◽  

AbstractThe amino acid response (AAR) and unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways converge on eIF2α phosphorylation, which is catalyzed by Gcn2 and Perk, respectively, under different stresses. This close interconnection makes it difficult to specify different functions of AAR and UPR. Here, we generated a zebrafish model in which loss of threonyl-tRNA synthetase (Tars) induces angiogenesis dependent on Tars aminoacylation activity. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the tars-mutant and wild-type embryos with/without Gcn2- or Perk-inhibition reveals that only Gcn2-mediated AAR is activated in the tars-mutants, whereas Perk functions predominantly in normal development. Mechanistic analysis shows that, while a considerable amount of eIF2α is normally phosphorylated by Perk, the loss of Tars causes an accumulation of uncharged tRNAThr, which in turn activates Gcn2, leading to phosphorylation of an extra amount of eIF2α. The partial switchover of kinases for eIF2α largely overwhelms the functions of Perk in normal development. Interestingly, although inhibition of Gcn2 and Perk in this stress condition both can reduce the eIF2α phosphorylation levels, their functional consequences in the regulation of target genes and in the rescue of the angiogenic phenotypes are dramatically different. Indeed, genetic and pharmacological manipulations of these pathways validate that the Gcn2-mediated AAR, but not the Perk-mediated UPR, is required for tars-deficiency induced angiogenesis. Thus, the interconnected AAR and UPR pathways differentially regulate angiogenesis through selective functions and mutual competitions, reflecting the specificity and efficiency of multiple stress response pathways that evolve integrally to enable an organism to sense/respond precisely to various types of stresses.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12375
Peng Ke ◽  
Lin Qian ◽  
Yi Zhou ◽  
Liu Feng ◽  
Zhentao Zhang ◽  

Background Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a disease with high incidence rate in kidney related surgery. Micro RNA (miRNA) and transcription factors (TFs) are widely involved in the process of renal IRI through regulation of their target genes. However, the regulatory relationships and functional roles of TFs, miRNAs and mRNAs in the progression of renal IRI are insufficiently understood. The present study aimed to clarify the underlying mechanism of regulatory relationships in renal IRI. Methods Six gene expression profiles were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Differently expressed genes (DEGs) and differently expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified through RRA integrated analysis of mRNA datasets (GSE39548, GSE87025, GSE52004, GSE71647, and GSE131288) and miRNA datasets (GSE29495). miRDB and TransmiR v2.0 database were applied to predict target genes of miRNA and TFs, respectively. DEGs were applied for Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, followed with construction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Then, the TF-miRNA-mRNA network was constructed. Correlation coefficient and ROC analysis were used to verify regulatory relationship between genes and their diagnostic value in GSE52004. Furthermore, in independent mouse RNA-seq datasets GSE98622, human RNA-seq GSE134386 and in vitro, the expression of hub genes and genes from the network were observed and correlation coefficient and ROC analysis were validated. Results A total of 21 DEMs and 187 DEGs were identified in renal IRI group compared to control group. The results of PPI analysis showed 15 hub genes. The TF-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was constructed and several important pathways were identified and further verified, including Junb-miR-223-Ranbp3l, Cebpb-miR-223-Ranbp3l, Cebpb-miR-21-Ranbp3l and Cebpb-miR-181b-Bsnd. Four regulatory loops were identified, including Fosl2-miR-155, Fosl2-miR-146a, Cebpb-miR-155 and Mafk-miR-25. The hub genes and genes in the network showed good diagnostic value in mice and human. Conclusions In this study, we found 15 hub genes and several TF-miRNA-mRNA pathways, which are helpful for understanding the molecular and regulatory mechanisms in renal IRI. Junb-miR-223-Ranbp3l, Cebpb-miR-223-Ranbp3l, Cebpb-miR-21-Ranbp3l and Cebpb-miR-181b-Bsnd were the most important pathways, while Spp1, Fos, Timp1, Tnc, Fosl2 and Junb were the most important hub genes. Fosl2-miR-155, Fosl2-miR-146a, Cebpb-miR-155 and Mafk-miR-25 might be the negative feedback loops in renal IRI.

2021 ◽  
Haobin Chen ◽  
Lisa Gesumaria ◽  
Young-Kwon Park ◽  
Trudy G Oliver ◽  
Dinah S. Singer ◽  

SCLC is a recalcitrant malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Four molecular subtypes of SCLC have been named, each associated with one master transcription factor (ASCL1, NEUROD1, POU2F3, or YAP1). Much is still unknown about the function and transactivation of NEUROD1 in this malignancy. Herein we report that knockout of NEUROD1 triggered SCLC to evolve into a YAP1 subtype. Through an integrated analysis of RNA-seq and ChIP-seq, we found NEUROD1 regulates neural-related genes by binding to gene promoters and distal enhancers. NEUROD1 physically interacts with BET bromodomain proteins and recruits them to actively transcribed genes. Inhibition of BET bromodomain proteins blocks NEUROD1 transactivation and suppresses SCLC growth. We identified LSAMP as one of the NEUROD1-target genes that mediate SCLC sensitivity to BET bromodomain inhibitors. Our findings suggest that targeting transcriptional coactivators could be a new approach to block master transcription factors in SCLC to enable precision therapy.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 3773
Kristina Lossow ◽  
Kostja Renko ◽  
Maria Schwarz ◽  
Lutz Schomburg ◽  
Tanja Schwerdtle ◽  

Selenium and iodine are the two central trace elements for the homeostasis of thyroid hormones but additional trace elements such as iron, zinc, and copper are also involved. To compare the primary effects of inadequate intake of selenium and iodine on the thyroid gland, as well as the target organs of thyroid hormones such as liver and kidney, mice were subjected to an eight-week dietary intervention with low versus adequate selenium and iodine supply. Analysis of trace element levels in serum, liver, and kidney demonstrated a successful intervention. Markers of the selenium status were unaffected by the iodine supply. The thyroid gland was able to maintain serum thyroxine levels even under selenium-deficient conditions, despite reduced selenoprotein expression in liver and kidney, including deiodinase type 1. Thyroid hormone target genes responded to the altered selenium and iodine supply, whereas the iron, zinc, and copper homeostasis remained unaffected. There was a notable interaction between thyroid hormones and copper, which requires further clarification. Overall, the effects of an altered selenium and iodine supply were pronounced in thyroid hormone target tissues, but not in the thyroid gland.

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (2) ◽  
pp. 309-324

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (11) ◽  
pp. 134
Marie Günthel ◽  
Karel van van Duijvenboden ◽  
Dennis E. M. de de Bakker ◽  
Ingeborg B. Hooijkaas ◽  
Jeroen Bakkers ◽  

Myocardial infarction causes ventricular muscle loss and formation of scar tissue. The surviving myocardium in the border zone, located adjacent to the infarct, undergoes profound changes in function, structure and composition. How and to what extent these changes of border zone cardiomyocytes are regulated epigenetically is not fully understood. Here, we obtained transcriptomes of PCM-1-sorted mouse cardiomyocyte nuclei of healthy left ventricle and 7 days post myocardial infarction border zone tissue. We validated previously observed downregulation of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial function in border zone-derived cardiomyocytes, and observed a modest induction of genes involved in glycolysis, including Slc2a1 (Glut1) and Pfkp. To gain insight into the underlying epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, we performed H3K27ac profiling of healthy and border zone cardiomyocyte nuclei. We confirmed the switch from Mef2- to AP-1 chromatin association in border zone cardiomyocytes, and observed, in addition, an enrichment of PPAR/RXR binding motifs in the sites with reduced H3K27ac signal. We detected downregulation and accompanying epigenetic state changes at several key PPAR target genes including Ppargc1a (PGC-1a), Cpt2, Ech1, Fabpc3 and Vldrl in border zone cardiomyocytes. These data indicate that changes in epigenetic state and gene regulation underlie the maintained metabolic switch in border zone cardiomyocytes.

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