rural areas
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2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (3) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Based on rural population return management, governance theory, and information technology theory, this paper analyzes the specific performance of rural areas in managing population return, and describes the overview, quantity, life status, and demographic characteristics of rural population return, as well as the current situation of rural population return management. A method of managing rural population return based on a rural population return management model constructed by a machine learning algorithm is designed. The empirical results show that the method designed in this paper is low-cost, fast, and highly accurate, and is well suited for improving and expanding the system for managing rural return flows. The research in this paper provides a reference for further promoting the transformation strategy of rural governance in the context of new urbanization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (63) ◽  
pp. 315-334
afshin bahmani ◽  
mojtaba ghadirimasoom ◽  
mahdi hajiloo ◽  
farideh azimi ◽  
mahdieh ghadirimasoom ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 135 ◽  
pp. 102660
Damián Copena ◽  
David Pérez-Neira ◽  
Alfredo Macías Vázquez ◽  
Xavier Simón

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 047-057
Modou Séré ◽  
Kiessoun Konaté ◽  
Balamoussa Santara ◽  
Dominique O. Sanou ◽  
Adrien M.G. Belem

Nowadays, thanks to the rise of microbial resistance, the lack of health care personnel and especially the high cost of synthetic molecules, phytotherapy could be a panacea in many developing countries. For this reason, the present work which aims to evaluate the phenolic compounds and to study the antibacterial capacity of extracts of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of Solanum incanum L., (Solanaceae) traditionally used for the treatment of pasteurellosis or avian cholera in Burkina Faso, was undertaken. For this purpose, we collected plant material in the commune of Dedougou. After extraction with acetone and water, colorimetric tests were carried out on the different extracts and revealed mostly the presence of tannins and coumarins. The Hydroacetone macerated extract was found to be very interesting for biological activities compared to the macerated extracts and the aqueous decoctions. Inhibition of bacterial growth on different bacterial strains was also shown for all the extracts, especially with Hydroacetone extract. These results could be mainly explained by the inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds. The Hydroacetone extract was also found to be especially very relevant for the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases from poultry.

Saravanan Kalaivanan ◽  
Stebin Sebastian ◽  
Tadepalli Balaji Sai Swapnil ◽  
Nikhil Ch ◽  

As India is still a developing country, it has a lot of rural areas wherein the living conditions and standards are below world standards and may even be on the underdeveloped scale of living standards. In order to achieve development in these regions the first and foremost step to initiate is to improve the agriculture standards and methodologies and bring in new technology to improve the methods used in agriculture which is the major source of income to these people. This project is a four staged project which intends on improving the agriculture standards of India. The first stage of the project is an automated humidity and moisture control for the soil, this will help the farmers in automating certain aspects and hence eliminate certain human errors and improve yield. The second stage of the project is an agriculture auction portal wherein the farmers can directly auction their products to the wholesaler without the need of a middle man/broker. The third stage of the project is an android app which conducts various surveys and suggests a new farmer the type of farming/seeds to be planted / soil information and other such relevant data in respect to agriculture which would help increase the yield for a new farmer. The last part of the project is a seed cum financial bank which helps the farmers by providing financial as well as seed aid in times of financial crisis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 141-149
Yi-Fan Du ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Wei-Ling Bai ◽  
Ru-Yue Li ◽  

AIM: To summarize the data of epidemiological studies on cataract prevalence over 50 years old in urban and rural areas of China from 2000 to 2020, and to analyze the prevalence of cataract and operation rate in China. METHODS: By searching PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Wanfang Data and CNKI, Chinese and English literatures on the prevalence of cataract in China were retrieved, and the relevant characteristic data were extracted. Then, Stata v15SE software was used for Meta-analysis and heterogeneity test. According to the results of heterogeneity, the corresponding effect models were selected to combine the extracted data. RESULTS: A total of 20 studies were included in this study, with a total of 111 434 cases. Meta-analysis showed heterogeneity. According to the random effect model, the overall prevalence of cataract in Chinese people over 50 years old was 27.45%, that in rural was 28.79%, and that in urban was 26.66%. The overall coverage rate of cataract surgery was 9.19%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cataract is high in China, and there is still room for improvement in surgical coverage, so it is very important to promote cataract screening and prevention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Binbin Su ◽  
Yiran Wang ◽  
Yanhui Dong ◽  
Gang Hu ◽  
Yike Xu ◽  

PurposeDiabetes mellitus is emerging as an epidemic worldwide, and the incidence and prevalence of diabetes have drastically changed in China over the past 30 years, but data on its mortality rate are scarce. This study aimed to analyze the time trends of mortality rates among patients with diabetes in the rural and urban population in China between 1987 and 2019.MethodsThe research data come from China’s annual report on national health statistics and the Chinese Health Statistics Yearbook. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated by using the direct method based on the World Standard Population from the WHO. Joinpoint regression analysis was employed to estimate the annual percent change and average annual percentage changes of mortality rates of diabetes mellitus.ResultsAn overall trend for increment in diabetes mortality was observed. The crude mortality rates and age-standardized mortality rates of diabetes for urban and rural residents in China showed a significant increasing trend between 1987 and 2019. Mortality due to diabetes in urban areas has been higher than in rural areas for 30 years. However, due to the rapid increase of rural diabetes mortality in the past decade, the gap between the two gradually narrowed. The age-standardized mortality rates of diabetes increased by about 38.5% in urban areas and 254.9% in rural areas over the whole study period. In addition, the age-standardized mortality rate of females with diabetes was higher than that of males, but this pattern began to change in urban areas in 2012. Finally, the age-standardized mortality rates in the elderly population in China are higher with a faster growth rate, especially in rural areas.ConclusionThe mortality rate of diabetes is on the rise in China. The rapid growth of the mortality rate of diabetes in rural areas leads to the reduction of the urban–rural gap. Male mortality rates in urban areas have surpassed those of women. At the same time, the mortality rate of diabetes showed obvious elder-group orientation. As China’s population ages, the burden of death and disability caused by diabetes and its complications will continue to increase. These results indicate that diabetes has become a significant public health problem in China. Such an effect increases the demand for strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. In addition to the prevention and intervention of diabetes in high-risk groups, it is also necessary to establish diabetes screening networks to identify patients with mild symptoms. Early detection and timely intervention can effectively reduce the incidence and mortality of diabetes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Hui Liao ◽  
Chaoyang Yan ◽  
Ying Ma ◽  
Jing Wang

BackgroundThe disability problem has become prominent with the acceleration of the global aging process. Individual disability is associated with economic conditions and contributes to family poverty. As disability will change over a long period of time and may even show distinct dynamic trends, we aimed to focus on activities of daily living (ADL) and classify functional disability trends. Moreover, we aimed to highlight and analyze the association between functional disability trends and economic conditions and explore the influencing factors.Materials and MethodsA total of 11,222 individuals who were 45 years old or older were included in four surveys conducted by the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2018. Samples were analyzed after excluding those with missing key variables. The latent class growth model was used to classify the ADL trends. Two binary logistic regressions were established to observe the association between the ADL trends and follow-up economic conditions or catastrophic health expenditure trends.ResultsADL trends of older adults were classified into improving (25.4%), stabilizing (57.0%), and weakening ADL (17.6%). ADL trend was associated with follow-up poverty (p = 0.002) and catastrophic health expenditure trends (p < 0.001). Compared with the improving ADL trend, the stabilizing ADL may have a negative influence on individuals' economic conditions (OR = 1.175, 95%CI = 1.060–1.303). However, a stabilizing ADL trend was less likely to bring about catastrophic health expenditures (OR = 0.746, 95%CI = 0.678–0.820) compared with an improving ADL trend.ConclusionThe improvement of functional disability would make the medical expense burden heavier but would still be beneficial for the prevention of poverty. A significant association was found between socioeconomic factors and poverty. Preventing the older adults from developing disability and illness, improving the compensation level of medical insurance, and optimizing the long-term care insurance and the primary healthcare system can potentially contribute to the prevention of poverty. Meanwhile, focusing on people who are poor at early stages, women, middle-aged, low-educated, and in rural areas is important.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 203-221
I Putu Indra Kusuma

The implementation of online English instruction in remote areas during the COVID-19 pandemic, which mandates school closures, remains unknown, especially given these areas’ reputation for inadequate educational facilities. Additionally, the preparations, implementation, and challenges experienced by English as a Foreign Language (henceforth, EFL) teachers in rural areas remain unclear. This study therefore aimed at exploring the experiences of EFL teachers in rural areas on (1) their readiness for conducting online teaching, (2) their implementation of online teaching, and (3) the challenges during the implementation of online teaching due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The research was conducted in Indonesia with eight English teachers in rural schools. This study was a qualitative study that employed a phenomenological study approach and used semi-structured interviews to collect the data. The findings indicate that EFL teachers, during this pandemic time, were able to conduct fully online English teaching because they possessed sufficient knowledge of English instruction using technology. Additionally, these teachers might leverage various technologies and adapt those tools to transform their usual face-to-face English instruction into online instruction. Nonetheless, these teachers in rural schools frequently encountered challenges with internet connectivity, student-owned technology devices, student enthusiasm, and student netiquette when enrolling in online English teaching. Additionally, this article discusses some practical considerations for implementing online English teaching during a pandemic. 

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