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Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 534
Zhijiang Wu ◽  
Haiyan Deng ◽  
Guidong Liang ◽  
Xiaoying Ye ◽  
Yonghua Qin ◽  

Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) is one of the most economic fleshy fruit tree crops. This study aimed at producing a high-density linkage genetic map of pitaya based on the whole genome resequencing (WGrS) approach. For this purpose, a bi-parental F1 population of 198 individuals was generated and genotyped by WGrS. High-quality polymorphic 6434 single polymorphism nucleotide (SNP) markers were extracted and used to construct a high-density linkage map. A total of 11 linkage groups were resolved as expected in accordance with the chromosome number. The map length was 14,128.7 cM with an average SNP interval of 2.2 cM. Homology with the sequenced reference genome was described, and the physical and genetic maps were compared with collinearity analysis. This linkage map in addition to the available genomic resources will help for quantitative trait mapping, evolutionary studies and marker-assisted selection in the important Hylocereus species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (4) ◽  
pp. 437-443
Sergej Nadalin ◽  
Alena Buretić-Tomljanović ◽  
Lena Zatković ◽  
Dalibor Karlović ◽  
Vjekoslav Peitl ◽  

Cilj: Porod carskim rezom kontinuirano se povezuje s povećanim rizikom za pojavu komponenti metaboličkog sindroma kod ispitanika u općoj populaciji, dok su podatci za bolesnike sa shizofrenijom manjkavi i proturječni. U ovom smo istraživanju ispitali pridonosi li, i u kojoj mjeri, vrsta poroda vrijednostima indeksa tjelesne mase (ITM) te koncentracijama lipida i glukoze u plazmi na dvjema skupinama bolesnika sa shizofrenijom koji ne primaju terapiju: u bolesnika s prvom epizodom shizofrenije (N = 48) i u kroničnih bolesnika neadherentnih prema antipsihotičnoj terapiji (N = 83). Ispitanici i metode: Podatci o vrsti poroda i neadherentnosti prema antipsihotičnoj terapiji prikupljeni su iz autoanamneze i heteroanamneze. Određivanje ukupnog kolesterola, LDL kolesterola (engl. low density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL kolesterola (engl. high density lipoprotein cholesterol), triglicerida i glukoze u plazmi realizirano je nakon 12-satnog gladovanja. Rezultati: Učestalost poroda carskim rezom iznosila je 8,4 %. Koncentracije triglicerida i vrijednosti ITM-a bile su značajno više u bolesnika rođenih carskim rezom u odnosu na bolesnike rođene vaginalnim porodom: 1,5 (0,6 – 4,3) vs. 1,1 (0,3 – 3,1); z = -2,21, p = 0,027. Vrsta poroda pridonosi s približno 3,3 % varijabilnosti koncentracija triglicerida. Zaključci: Naši rezultati upućuju da vrsta poroda utječe u manjoj mjeri na koncentracije triglicerida u plazmi u bolesnika sa shizofrenijom koji nisu na terapiji antipsihotičnim lijekovima. Porod carskim rezom predstavlja rizični čimbenik za povišene koncentracije triglicerida.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1677
Christopher J. Fettig ◽  
Leif A. Mortenson ◽  
Jackson P. Audley

We examined causes and levels of tree mortality one year after thinning and prescribed burning was completed in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) forests at Pringle Falls Experimental Forest, Oregon, U.S. Four blocks of five experimental units (N = 20) were established. One of each of five treatments was assigned to each experimental unit in each block. Treatments included thinning from below to the upper management zone (UMZ) for the dominant plant association based on stand density index values for ponderosa pine followed by mastication and prescribed burning: (1) 50% UMZ (low density stand), (2) 75% UMZ (medium density stand), (3) 75% UMZ Gap, which involved a regeneration cut, (4) 100% UMZ (high density stand), and (5) an untreated control (high density stand). Experimental units were thinned in 2011 (block 4), 2012 (block 2), and 2013 (blocks 1 and 3); masticated within one year; and prescribed burned two years after thinning (2013–2015). A total of 395,053 trees was inventoried, of which 1.1% (4436) died. Significantly higher levels of tree mortality occurred on 100 UMZ (3.1%) than the untreated control (0.05%). Mortality was attributed to prescribed fire (2706), several species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (1592), unknown factors (136), windfall (1 tree), and western gall rust (1 tree). Among bark beetles, tree mortality was attributed to western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte) (881 trees), pine engraver (Ips pini (Say)) (385 trees), fir engraver (Scolytus ventralis LeConte) (304 trees), mountain pine beetle (D. ponderosae Hopkins) (20 trees), Ips emarginatus (LeConte) (1 tree), and Pityogenes spp. (1 tree).

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alejandra Aranceta-Garza ◽  
Alessandro Russo ◽  
Samuel D’Emanuele ◽  
Francesca Serafino ◽  
Roberto Merletti

Introduction: At a professional level, pianists have a high prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders. This exploratory crossover study was carried out to assess and compare quantitatively [using high density surface electromyography (HDsEMG)], and qualitatively (using musculoskeletal questionnaires) the activity of the lumbar erector spinae muscles (ESM) and the comfort/discomfort in 16 pianists sitting on a standard piano stool (SS) and on an alternative chair (A-chair) with lumbar support and a trunk-thigh angle between 105° and 135°.Materials and Methods: The subjects played for 55 min and HDsEMG was recorded for 20 s every 5 min. For the quantitative assessment of the muscle activity, the spatial mean of the root mean square (RMSROA) and the centroid of the region of activity (ROA) of the ESM were compared between the two chairs. For the qualitative assessment, musculoskeletal questionnaire-based scales were used: General Comfort Rating (GCR); Helander and Zhang’s comfort (HZc) and discomfort (HZd); and Body Part Discomfort (BPD).Results: When using the A-chair, 14 out of 16 pianists (87.5%) showed a significantly lower RMSROA on the left and right side (p < 0.05). The mixed effects model revealed that both chairs (F = 28.21, p < 0.001) and sides (F = 204.01, p < 0.001) contributed to the mean RMSROA variation by subject (Z = 2.64, p = 0.004). GCR comfort indicated that participants found the A-Chair to be “quite comfortable,” and the SS to be “uncomfortable.” GCR discomfort indicated that the SS caused more numbness than the A-Chair (p = 0.05) and indicated the A-Chair to cause more feeling of cramps (p = 0.034). No difference was found on HZc (p = 0.091) or HZd (p = 0.31) between chairs. Female participants (n = 9) reported greater comfort when using the A-Chair than the SS (F = 7.09, p = 0.01) with respect to males. No differences between chairs were indicated by the BPD assessment.Conclusion: It is concluded that using a chair with lumbar support, such as the A-chair, will provide greater comfort, less exertion of the ESM and less discomfort than the standard piano stool.

SPE Journal ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Hu Jia ◽  
Cheng-Cheng Niu ◽  
Chang-Lou Dai

Summary Despite the increasing contribution of renewables to global energy, fossil fuels such as oil and gas still play an important role in energy supply. The development of deep and ultradeep oil and gas reservoirs has become more urgent. Typically, the ultrahigh-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) environment is a big challenge. Solid-free brine is often used as a weighting component of high-density well completion fluid in the process of well operation, but the large amount of free water can easily cause water blocking damage to the reservoir. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a high-density completion fluid system that can be used in HTHP reservoir environments with little free water. In this paper, based on the theory of dispersion, degradation, viscosity extraction, and viscosity stabilization of polymer flexible colloidal particles in brines, an ultrahigh-temperature (180°C)-resistant, solid-free flexible colloidal completion fluid (SFCCF) with variable density and low corrosion was prepared. It breaks through the classical Flory’s water absorption theory. The phosphate brine was selected as the weighting base fluid of SFCCF, and the flexible colloidal particles were saturated with the phosphate brine to improve the density of SFCCF, as well as to reduce free water to lower the potential of water blocking damage. The results show that the dynamic viscosity of SFCCF is adjustable and ranges from 27 to 690 mPa·s, and the density is adjustable in the range of 1 to 1.8 g/cm3. SFCCF is a typical pseudoplastic fluid with shear dilution property, which is the result of the network destruction and the shear deformation of the flexible colloidal particles. The pump rate vs. dynamic viscosity curve is drawn. Under the pump rate of 50 to 800 L/min, the dynamic viscosity of SFCCF (1.2 to 1.7 g/cm3) is less than 40 mPa·s. In addition, SFCCF is viscosity stable for at least 4 days at 180°C and has excellent clay swelling resistance and reservoir fluid compatibility. Finally, SFCCF provides good reservoir protection and rock carrying capabilities and has the advantage of low cost. The successful application of SFCCF in a high-pressure gas well in the East China Sea is summarized, and some recommendations are proposed. The developed SFCCF can significantly reduce water blocking damage in HTHP well operations, providing a new avenue for HTHP well completions.

2021 ◽  
Bin Zhu ◽  
Dan Wu ◽  
Yuanyuan Yang ◽  
Pingli Yu ◽  
Haobo Huang ◽  

Abstract Purpose The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of free fatty acid (FFA) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in predicting colorectal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Methods One hundred patients with pathologically diagnosed colorectal NETs in 2011-2017 were enrolled, and the levels of FFA, HDL-C, low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol (CHOL), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) between colorectal NET patients and healthy controls matched by age and sex were compared. In addition, the association of clinicopathological characteristics and follow-up data with FFA and HDL-C was analysed. Results FFA was overexpressed (0.55±0.23 vs. 0.48±0.11, P= 0.006) and HDL-C was underexpressed (1.31±0.41 vs. 1.41±0.29, P=0.046) in colorectal NETs. FFA ≥0.52 mmol/L predicted lymph node metastasis (LNM) (χ2 = 5.964, P=0.015), and HDL-C ≤1.0 mmol/L predicted tumour size ≥2 cm (χ2 = 5.647, P=0.017). No significant association was found between FFA and tumour size (P=0.142) or HDL-C and LNM (P=0.443). FFA ≥0.52 mmol/L (χ2 = 6.016, P=0.014) and HDL-C ≤1.0 mmol/L predicted worse overall survival (OS) (χ2 = 5.488, P=0.019). FFA ≥0.52 mmol/L in combination with HDL-C ≤1.0 mmol/L predicted an even worse prognosis in terms of OS (χ2 = 4.818, P=0.028). Conclusion FFA ≥0.52 mmol/L and HDL-C ≤1.0 mmol/L were promising cut-off values in predicting LNM, tumour size and worse OS in colorectal NETs.

2021 ◽  
Joan Calvet ◽  
Danial Khorsandi ◽  
Laura Tío ◽  
Jordi Monfort

Abstract Background Pronolis®HD mono 2.5% is a novel, one-shot, high-density sterile viscoelastic solution, recently available in Spain, which contains a high amount of intermediate molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA), highly concentrated (120 mg in 4.8 mL solution: 2.5%). The objective of the study was to analyze the efficacy and safety of this treatment in symptomatic primary knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods This observational, prospective, multicenter, single-cohort study involved 166 patients with knee OA treated with a single-shot of Pronolis®HD mono 2.5% and followed up as many as 24 weeks. Results Compared with baseline, the score of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale significantly reduced at the 12-week visit (primary endpoint, median: 9 interquartile range [IQR]: 7-11 versus median: 4; IQR: 2-6). The percentage of patients achieving >50% improvement in the pain subscale increased progressively from 37.9% (at 2 weeks) to 66.0% (at 24 weeks). Similarly, WOMAC scores for pain on movement, stiffness subscale, and functional capacity subscale showed significant reductions at the 12-week visit which were maintained up to the 24-week visit. The EuroQol visual analog scale score significantly increased after 12 weeks (median: 60 versus 70). The need for rescue medication (analgesics/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) also significantly decreased in all post-injection visits. Three patients (1.6%) reported local adverse events (joint swelling) of mild intensity. Conclusions In conclusion, a single intra-articular injection of the high-density viscoelastic gel of HA is effective and safe for the relief of symptoms in patients with knee OA. Trial registration: ClinicalTrial# NCT04196764

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 025-034
Rajiv Kumar ◽  
Rohit Kumar Chopra ◽  
Harpreet Singh ◽  
Parminder Nain ◽  
RK Dhawan

The oral route is the best and most popular route for the administration of drugs in the systemic circulation. There are number of drugs which are given through the oral route. Gastro-retentive drug delivery system is very important system for the drug delivery system. The gastro-retentive drugs prolonged the drug time in the git and also improve their their bioavailability. These are widely used for site specific for the treatment of git disorders and diseases. There are number of approaches for gastro retentive drug delivery system such as floating system, mucoadhesive system, swelling system, high density system etc. In this review we discussed about approaches and various perspectives of gastro retentive drug delivery system.

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