Translational Research
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2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Vasiliki Kiparoglou ◽  
Laurence A. Brown ◽  
Helen McShane ◽  
Keith M. Channon ◽  
Syed Ghulam Sarwar Shah

Abstract Background The evaluation of translational health research is important for various reasons such as the research impact assessment, research funding allocation, accountability, and strategic research policy formulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the research productivity, strength and diversity of research collaboration networks and impact of research supported by a large biomedical research centre in the United Kingdom (UK). Methods Bibliometric analysis of research publications by translational researchers affiliated with the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) from April 2012 to March 2017. Results Analysis included 2377 translational research publications that were published during the second 5-year funding period of the NIHR Oxford BRC. Author details were available for 99.75% of the publications with DOIs (2359 of 2365 with DOIs), and the number of authors per publication was median 9 (mean  = 18.03, SD  = 3.63, maximum  = 2467 authors). Author lists also contained many consortia, groups, committees, and teams (n  = 165 in total), with 1238 additional contributors, where membership was reported. The BRC co-authorship i.e., research collaboration network for these publications involved 20,229 nodes (authors, of which 1606 nodes had Oxford affiliations), and approximately 4.3 million edges (authorship linkages). Articles with a valid DOIs (2365 of 2377, 99.5%) were collectively cited more than 155,000 times and the average Field Citation Ratio was median 6.75 (geometric mean  = 7.12) while the average Relative Citation Ratio was median 1.50 (geometric mean  = 1.83) for the analysed publications. Conclusions The NIHR Oxford BRC generated substantial translational research publications and facilitated a huge collaborative network of translational researchers working in complex structures and consortia, which shows success across the whole of this BRC funding period. Further research involving continued uptake of unique persistent identifiers and the tracking of other research outputs such as clinical innovations and patents would allow a more detailed understanding of large research enterprises such as NIHR BRCs in the UK.


2021 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. C72-C83
Author(s):  
Marcin Jurkiewicz

The isolated scattering number is a parameter that measures the vulnerability of networks. This measure is bounded by formulas depending on the independence number. We present new bounds on the isolated scattering number that can be calculated in polynomial time. References Z. Chen, M. Dehmer, F. Emmert-Streib, and Y. Shi. Modern and interdisciplinary problems in network science: A translational research perspective. CRC Press, 2018. doi: 10.1201/9781351237307 P. Erdős and T. Gallai. On the minimal number of vertices representing the edges of a graph. Magyar Tud. Akad. Mat. Kutató Int. Közl. 6 (1961), pp. 181–203. url: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.210.7468 J. Harant and I. Schiermeyer. On the independence number of a graph in terms of order and size. Discrete Math. 232.1–3 (2001), pp. 131–138. doi: 10.1016/S0012-365X(00)00298-3 E. Korach, T. Nguyen, and B. Peis. Subgraph characterization of red/blue-split graph and Kőnig Egerváry graphs. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms. ACM, New York, 2006, pp. 842–850. doi: 10.1145/1109557.1109650 F. Li, Q. Ye, and Y. Sun. Proceedings of the 2016 Joint Conference of ANZIAM and Zhejiang Provincial Applied Mathematics Association, ANZPAMS-2016. Ed. by P. Broadbridge, M. Nelson, D. Wang, and A. J. Roberts. Vol. 58. ANZIAM J. 2017, E81–E97. doi: 10.21914/anziamj.v58i0.10993 F. Li, Q. Ye, and X. Zhang. Isolated scattering number of split graphs and graph products. ANZIAM J. 58.3-4 (2017), pp. 350–358. doi: 10.1017/S1446181117000062 E. R. Scheinerman and D. H. Ullman. Fractional graph theory. Dover Publications, 2011. url: https://www.ams.jhu.edu/ers/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/fgt.pdf S. Y. Wang, Y. X. Yang, S. W. Lin, J. Li, and Z. M. Hu. The isolated scattering number of graphs. Acta Math. Sinica (Chin. Ser.) 54.5 (2011), pp. 861–874. url: http://www.actamath.com/EN/abstract/abstract21097.shtml M. Xiao and H. Nagamochi. Exact algorithms for maximum independent set. Inform. and Comput. 255, Part 1 (2017), pp. 126–146. doi: 10.1016/j.ic.2017.06.001


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Justin B. Senecal ◽  
Karen Metcalfe ◽  
Kaila Wilson ◽  
Indryas Woldie ◽  
Lisa A. Porter

Abstract Background Translational research is an ideology focussed on streamlining the transition of novel research into clinical practice to ultimately benefit populations. Central to this approach is overcoming barriers to research involvement and interdisciplinary collaboration. Identifying barriers has been the subject of several studies focused on communities with large academic hospitals. The Windsor-Essex region is currently built around community hospitals which have less of an emphasis on research, employ fewer physicians holding academic appointments and generally do not provide incentivised time for research and training. In this study, we surveyed clinicians and researchers working in Windsor-Essex to gain insight into barriers to translational research important to those working in smaller sized, community-based research networks. Methods Using an anonymous close-ended Qualtrics survey distributed via email, we surveyed faculty members from The University of Windsor and clinical care providers from Windsor-Essex (n = 68). This included 24 physicians, 14 allied health professionals, and 30 non-clinician researchers. Results Managing competing interests, lack of time, funding, infrastructure, and networks were identified by greater than 75% of participants as barriers to research involvement. 62% of physicians identified the lack of permanent post-graduate medical trainees as a barrier. Clinicians were consistently less experienced in research skills compared to others; particularly in publishing results and applying for funding (p < 0.001). Schedule incompatibility, funding issues and identifying interested collaborators with overlapping interests were identified as barriers to interdisciplinary collaboration by 80% of participants. Moreover, 46% of those surveyed were unhappy with their research involvement and these individuals were 13% more likely to perceive research as important for their career progression (p = 0.244). Conclusions This study identifies several important barriers to translational research in Windsor-Essex and suggests that many motivated researchers are unhappy with their current involvement. These results will inform decision making in the research community of Windsor-Essex and provides insight for communities of similar size and research capacity. Ultimately, enabling the translation of clinical research in all communities is required to ensure equitable access to cutting edge care.


Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 5958
Author(s):  
Susanne Kossatz ◽  
Ambros Johannes Beer ◽  
Johannes Notni

For almost the entire period of the last two decades, translational research in the area of integrin-targeting radiopharmaceuticals was strongly focused on the subtype αvβ3, owing to its expression on endothelial cells and its well-established role as a biomarker for, and promoter of, angiogenesis. Despite a large number of translated tracers and clinical studies, a clinical value of αvβ3-integrin imaging could not be defined yet. The focus of research has, thus, been moving slowly but steadily towards other integrin subtypes which are involved in a large variety of tumorigenic pathways. Peptidic and non-peptidic radioligands for the integrins α5β1, αvβ6, αvβ8, α6β1, α6β4, α3β1, α4β1, and αMβ2 were first synthesized and characterized preclinically. Some of these compounds, targeting the subtypes αvβ6, αvβ8, and α6β1/β4, were subsequently translated into humans during the last few years. αvβ6-Integrin has arguably attracted most attention because it is expressed by some of the cancers with the worst prognosis (above all, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma), which substantiates a clinical need for the respective theranostic agents. The receptor furthermore represents a biomarker for malignancy and invasiveness of carcinomas, as well as for fibrotic diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and probably even for Sars-CoV-2 (COVID-19) related syndromes. Accordingly, the largest number of recent first-in-human applications has been reported for radiolabeled compounds targeting αvβ6-integrin. The results indicate a substantial clinical value, which might lead to a paradigm change and trigger the replacement of αvβ3 by αvβ6 as the most popular integrin in theranostics.


Stroke ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Vani Venugopal ◽  
S. Sumi

Vascular malformations of the brain (VMB) comprise abnormal development of blood vessels. A small fraction of VMBs causes hemorrhages with neurological morbidity and risk of mortality in patients. Most often, they are symptomatically silent and are detected at advanced stages of disease progression. The most common forms of VMBs are arteriovenous and cavernous malformations in the brain. Radiopathological features of these diseases are complex with high phenotypic variability. Early detection of these malformations followed by preclusion of severe neurological deficits such as hemorrhage and stroke is crucial in the clinical management of patients with VMBs. The technological advances in high-throughput omics platforms have currently infused a zest in translational research in VMBs. Besides finding novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets, these studies have withal contributed significantly to the understanding of the etiopathogenesis of VMBs. Here we discuss the recent advances in predictive and prognostic biomarker research in sporadic and familial arteriovenous malformations as well as cerebral cavernous malformations. Furthermore, we analyze the clinical applicability of protein and noncoding RNA-based molecular-targeted therapies which may have a potentially key role in disease management.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (22) ◽  
pp. 12350
Author(s):  
Alessandro Michelucci ◽  
Veronique E. Miron ◽  
Josef Priller

Microglia are necessary for the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS) [...]


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