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Religions ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Beata Zarzycka ◽  
Dariusz Krok ◽  
Kamil Tomaka ◽  
Radosław Rybarski

Prayer is one of the most important aspects of religious/spiritual life. The psychological literature has identified various types of prayer and a few methods for measuring it. The Multidimensional Prayer Inventory (MPI) has received much attention from researchers since it allows for the capture of the most universal forms of prayer, characteristic of the Judeo-Christian tradition: Adoration, Confession, Thanksgiving, Supplication, and Reception. The aim of this article was to examine psychometric properties and clinical applications of the Polish MPI. In four studies, we established the internal structure of the MPI using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, study 1) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA, study 2), examined its validity and reliability in relation to religiousness (study 3), and analysed its clinical application (study 4). The Polish MPI has been confirmed as a reliable and valid measure of five types of prayer for use in research settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 962
Xingzhi Wang ◽  
Nitesh Tewari ◽  
Fuyuki Sato ◽  
Keiji Tanimoto ◽  
Lakshmi Thangavelu ◽  

Sodium fluoride (NaF) is widely used in clinical dentistry. However, the administration of high or low concentrations of NaF has various functions in different tissues. Understanding the mechanisms of the different effects of NaF will help to optimize its use in clinical applications. Studies of NaF and epithelial cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and periodontal cells have suggested the significant roles of fluoride treatment. In this review, we summarize recent studies on the biphasic functions of NaF that are related to both soft and hard periodontal tissues, multiple diseases, and clinical dentistry.

Jarrel Seah ◽  
Tom Boeken ◽  
Marc Sapoval ◽  
Gerard S. Goh

AbstractMachine learning techniques, also known as artificial intelligence (AI), is about to dramatically change workflow and diagnostic capabilities in diagnostic radiology. The interest in AI in Interventional Radiology is rapidly gathering pace. With this early interest in AI in procedural medicine, IR could lead the way to AI research and clinical applications for all interventional medical fields. This review will address an overview of machine learning, radiomics and AI in the field of interventional radiology, enumerating the possible applications of such techniques, while also describing techniques to overcome the challenge of limited data when applying these techniques in interventional radiology. Lastly, this review will address common errors in research in this field and suggest pathways for those interested in learning and becoming involved about AI.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 242
Almudena Marti ◽  
Jurriaan Huskens

Affinity sensing of nucleic acids is among the most investigated areas in biosensing due to the growing importance of DNA diagnostics in healthcare research and clinical applications. Here, we report a simple electrochemical DNA detection layer, based on poly-l-lysine (PLL), in combination with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a signal amplifier. The layer shows excellent reduction of non-specific binding and thereby high contrast between amplified and non-amplified signals with functionalized AuNPs; the relative change in current was 10-fold compared to the non-amplified signal. The present work may provide a general method for the detection of tumor markers based on electrochemical DNA sensing.

Mohamed Ali Sawas ◽  
Mohammed Ahmed Al Nassir ◽  
Lojain Mohammed Nayas ◽  
Meshari Nasser Alabdulkarim ◽  
Farah Youssef Faden ◽  

Orthodontic treatment is usually conducted by applying forces to certain teeth to move them into a targeted position. Orthodontic wires have been reported to be the primary modalities used in fixed-appliances-based orthodontic treatment to induce favorable tooth movement events. Accordingly, acquiring adequate knowledge about these approaches' clinical applications and biochemical behavior is essential when planning for a successful orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic wires are widely used and are mainly composed of composites, polymers, alloys and metals. Accordingly, the physical properties and clinical application of orthodontic wires vary based on their composition. In this context, it was recommended that achieving favorable outcomes of orthodontic treatment obliges clinicians to decide the best orthodontic wire and treatment plan based on the chemical properties and related clinical applications of each wire. Therefore, wires that tend to produce increasing stiffness gradually are generally used. However, it should be noted that no ideal wire exists. Therefore, favoring the application of a wire over the other should be based on the intended outcomes and stage of the treatment process. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yangming Zhang ◽  
Linguang Zhou ◽  
Jialin Xia ◽  
Ce Dong ◽  
Xiaozhou Luo

The commensal microbiome is essential for human health and is involved in many processes in the human body, such as the metabolism process and immune system activation. Emerging evidence implies that specific changes in the microbiome participate in the development of various diseases, including diabetes, liver diseases, tumors, and pathogen infections. Thus, intervention on the microbiome is becoming a novel and effective method to treat such diseases. Synthetic biology empowers researchers to create strains with unique and complex functions, making the use of engineered microbes for clinical applications attainable. The aim of this review is to summarize recent advances about the roles of the microbiome in certain diseases and the underlying mechanisms, as well as the use of engineered microbes in the prevention, detection, and treatment of various diseases.

Rajeh M. Al-Sharif ◽  
Khaled A. Althaqafi ◽  
Hend S. Alkathiry ◽  
Abdulrahman A. Alzeer ◽  
Raiya M. Shareef ◽  

Many applications for these technologies have been reported in multiple fields, including dentistry, within the last three decades. It can be used in periodontology, endodontics, orthodontics, oral implantology, maxillofacial and oral surgery, and prosthodontics. In the present literature review, we have discussed the different clinical applications of various 3D printing technologies in dentistry. Evidence indicates that 3D printing approaches are usually associated with favorable outcomes based on the continuous development and production of novel approaches, enabling clinicians to develop complex equipment in different clinical and surgical aspects. Developing work models to facilitate diagnostic and surgical settings is the commonest application of these modalities in dentistry. Besides, they can also be used to manufacture various implantable devices. Accordingly, they significantly help enhance the treatment process, reducing costs and less invasive procedures with favorable outcomes. Finally, 3D printing technologies can design complex devices in a facilitated and more accurate way than conventional methods. Therefore, 3D printing should be encouraged in clinical settings for its various advantages over conventional maneuvers.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 165
Ellen S. Hauck ◽  
James G. Hecker

Appropriate gene delivery systems are essential for successful gene therapy in clinical medicine. Lipid-mediated nucleic acid delivery is an alternative to viral vector-mediated gene delivery and has the following advantages. Lipid-mediated delivery of DNA or mRNA is usually more rapid than viral-mediated delivery, offers a larger payload, and has a nearly zero risk of incorporation. Lipid-mediated delivery of DNA or RNA is therefore preferable to viral DNA delivery in those clinical applications that do not require long-term expression for chronic conditions. Delivery of RNA may be preferable to non-viral DNA delivery in some clinical applications, since transit across the nuclear membrane is not necessary, and onset of expression with RNA is therefore even faster than with DNA, although both are faster than most viral vectors. Delivery of RNA to target organ(s) has previously been challenging due to RNA’s rapid degradation in biological systems, but cationic lipids complexed with RNA, as well as lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), have allowed for delivery and expression of the complexed RNA both in vitro and in vivo. This review will focus on the non-viral lipid-mediated delivery of RNAs, including mRNA, siRNA, shRNA, and microRNA, to the central nervous system (CNS), an organ with at least two unique challenges. The CNS contains a large number of slowly dividing or non-dividing cell types and is protected by the blood brain barrier (BBB). In non-dividing cells, RNA-lipid complexes demonstrated increased transfection efficiency relative to DNA transfection. The efficiency, timing of the onset, and duration of expression after transfection may determine which nucleic acid is best for which proposed therapy. Expression can be seen as soon as 1 h after RNA delivery, but duration of expression has been limited to 5–7 h. In contrast, transfection with a DNA lipoplex demonstrates protein expression within 5 h and lasts as long as several weeks after transfection.

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