Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
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Psikhiatriya ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 90-99
Author(s):  
N. N. Petrova ◽  
B. G. Butoma ◽  
M. V. Dorofeikova

Background: although the search for biomarkers of mental disorders that is aimed at improving diagnosis, individualizing therapy based on knowledge of pathophysiological processes and preventing the development of mental illness is actively underway for endogenous mental disorders, the study of biological markers in non-endogenous mental disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in particular has received much less attention. Aim: to analyze current state of research dedicated to genetic and biochemical biomarkers that can be used to identify high risk groups and clarify the diagnosis of PTSD. Material and method: keywords “biomarkers”, “post-traumatic stress disorder”, “pathogenesis” have been used to fi nd in PubMed articles published in 2010–2020. Conclusion: research methods for elucidating the mechanisms of PTSD are actively developing, however, the identifi cation of specifi c biomarkers (biochemical, molecular, genetic, epigenetic, neuroimaging, psychophysiological) is a complicated task. This complexity is associated with numerous pathogenic mechanisms of PTSD and frequent comorbidity with mental disorders (depression, anxiety) and somatic diseases, as well as lack of specifi city of detected biomarkers.


Author(s):  
Julia M. Whealin ◽  
Dianne Ciro ◽  
Christopher R. Dasaro ◽  
Iris G. Udasin ◽  
Michael Crane ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Author(s):  
Wei Xu ◽  
Juan Tang ◽  
Jie Chen

Objective. To investigate the influence of diagnostic informing on negative emotions, illness perception (IP), self-perceived burden (SPB), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with gastrointestinal tumors. Methods. A total of 261 patients with gastrointestinal tumors admitted to our hospital from January 2018 to December 2020 were selected. According to whether the patients were informed of the disease diagnosis, they were divided into the informing group (n = 125) and the concealment group (n = 136). The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), the self-rating depression scale (SDS), the brief illness perception questionnaire (BIPQ), the self-perceived burden scale (SPBS), and the PTSD checklist-civilian version (PCL-C) were used to investigate the two groups. Results. The SAS and SDS scores of the informing group were lower than those of the concealment group (t = 7.853 and 6.444, P  < 0.05). The total BIPQ score of the informing group was higher than that of the concealment group (t = −4.089, P  < 0.05). The total SPBS score of the informing group was lower than that in the concealment group (t = 2.443, P  < 0.05). The total PCL-C score of the informing group was lower than that of the concealment group (t = 2.173, P  < 0.05). Conclusion. Diagnosis informing can reduce the negative emotions, increase positive IP, and reduce the risk of SPB and PTSD in patients with gastrointestinal tumors.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shilat Haim-Nachum ◽  
Roxanne Sopp ◽  
George A. Bonanno ◽  
Einat Levy-Gigi

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) serve as a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for those who experience additional adult trauma. However, while some individuals with ACEs develop severe PTSD symptoms following exposure to additional adult trauma, others do not. We propose that updating prior knowledge in the face of new inconsistent information may account for these individual differences. This notion is based on prior work showing that for individuals with a reduced ability to update negative-to-positive outcome associations, greater trauma is correlated with elevated PTSD symptoms. On the other hand, individuals with flexible updating do not develop such symptoms. Here, we tested whether these updating difficulties moderate the relationship between ACEs and PTSD symptoms following additional adult trauma. Firefighters (N=123, Mage=28.02, SDage=4.69) were assessed for childhood adversity and PTSD symptoms and completed a performance-based learning paradigm to evaluate updating difficulties. We predicted and found strong associations between ACEs and PTSD symptoms for individuals with reduced updating of negative–but not positive–outcomes. The results may serve as a first step toward improving mental health outcomes in individuals with ACEs and protecting them from the aversive effect of exposure to additional adult trauma.



2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Author(s):  
Zeyuan Wang ◽  
Qin Hui ◽  
Jack Goldberg ◽  
Nicholas Smith ◽  
Belal Kaseer ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
pp. 008124632110481
Author(s):  
Desmond Uchechukwu Onu

Human immunodeficiency virus is one of the trauma-inducing chronic illnesses with attendant-negative impact on health-related quality of life. Substantial literature exists on the association of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and health-related quality of life among people living with human immunodeficiency virus, but little is known about the pathways explaining this link. This study therefore examined the mediating role of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in the association between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and health-related quality of life among people living with human immunodeficiency virus. Nine hundred and sixty-nine people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Nigeria who were on antiretroviral therapy completed measures of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and health-related quality of life. Hayes PROCESS macro for SPSS was used to analyse the data. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy mediated the association between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and health-related quality of life in the relationship and treatment impact domains, implying that poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a pathway through which posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms exert negative influence on health-related quality of life of people living with human immunodeficiency virus. Interventions aimed at reducing the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms on quality of life of people living with human immunodeficiency virus should focus on improving clients’ level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy treatment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 82 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Brian R. Shiner ◽  
Jiang Gui ◽  
Luke Rozema ◽  
Sarah L. Cornelius ◽  
Vincent Dufort ◽  
...  


2021 ◽  
pp. 216769682110387
Author(s):  
Chelsea Derlan Williams ◽  
Kristina B. Hood ◽  
Oswaldo Moreno ◽  
Karen G. Chartier ◽  
Kaprea F. Johnson ◽  
...  

The current study tested whether COVID-19 disruptions and perceived discrimination were related to mental health (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms and emotional, psychological, and social well-being), and whether exercise moderated relations. Additionally, we tested whether findings varied by ethnicity/race. Participants were 368 African American and Asian American emerging adults ( Mage = 19.92, SD = .34). Findings did not vary by ethnicity/race. COVID-19 disruptions predicted poorer emotional, psychological, and social well-being, and more PTSD symptoms. Discrimination predicted more PTSD symptoms. Exercise was associated with better emotional, psychological, and social well-being, and moderated the relation between COVID-19 disruptions and emotional well-being. At low levels of exercise, COVID-19 disruptions predicted poorer emotional well-being, but this relation was not significant at high levels of exercise. Findings highlight that discrimination and disruptions during the pandemic negatively affect African American and Asian American emerging adults’ mental health, but that exercise plays an important protective role.


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