Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common facial deformities. During embryonic life, non-fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal plaques leads to cleft lip and palate. Fissures can produce a range of dental problems in terms of number, size, shape, and position, related to deciduous or permanent dentition. Besides this, the teeth most affected are those located in the fissure area. There are numerous treatment protocols, which, despite the lack of a consensus, start as soon as the child is born, going into adulthood, seeking functional and aesthetic rehabilitation. The surgical phases, lip repair, nasal repair, palatoplasty and alveolar bone grafting, are performed according to age. As for the bone graft, the most used option is the secondary graft, with the autogenous one being the most available. Thus, the objective of this work is to present a clinical case of secondary alveolar bone grafting in a 10-year-old female patient with an incomplete unilateral pre-foramen cleft.
Objective This study aimed to review all research evidence of presurgical cleft size and related factors to success of secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG). Design and Setting The systematic review searched the OVID-Medline®, PubMed®, Embase®, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up to August 2020. Two reviewers independently selected potential abstracts for full review. Disagreeements were resolved by consensus. The first author extracted data and assessed the risk of bias using Risk of Bias in Non-randomized studies—of Interventions tool. Patients and Interventions Patients with non-syndromic clefts who received SABG were selected. Presurgical cleft size/volume and treatment results must be available. Main Outcome Measures Level of the grafted bone, achievement of orthodontic tooth movement into the grafted area, need for re-operation. Results From 962 abstracts, 23 publications were included. Mean cleft width was 6.80 ± 1.98 mm, cleft area 20–240 mm2, and mean volume 0.89 ± 0.33 cm3. No definite conclusion was achieved on whether a narrow or wide cleft showed better treatment outcomes, but other potentially related factors were good oral hygiene and eruptive force of the maxillary canines. Lack of a standard definition of cleft size, a small sample size, varying outcome parameters, and moderate-to-high risk of bias contributed to the summary. A meta-analysis could not be performed because of the heterogeneity. Conclusion Due to insufficient evidence, cleft width/volume could not be specified leading to more successful SABG. Care of patients could be improved in both research by following rigorous methodology, and practice by clear communication.
To investigate the longitudinal influence of alveolar bone grafting on the oral microbiota of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Twenty-eight children with nonsyndromic CLP were recruited and underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting at the first time. Unstimulated saliva and plaque samples were collected from the subjects preoperatively and at 2 days, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. The v3–v4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene from bacterial DNA were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. The alpha diversity of the saliva and plaque microbiota was significantly decreased at 2 days postoperatively and then increased at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. The saliva and plaque microbiota compositions at 2 days postoperatively differed from those at the other time points, and the microbiota compositions at 1 and 3 months postoperatively showed a gradual shift toward the preoperative composition. The saliva, but not plaque, microbiota composition 3 months postoperatively was similar to that preoperatively. The effect of secondary alveolar bone grafting on the plaque microbiota in children with CLP lasted longer than the saliva microbiota. Alveolar bone grafting altered the saliva microbiota in children with CLP within 3 months postoperatively.
Objective To determine if secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) timing in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) influences the future need for additional maxillary advancement procedures, particularly Le Fort I osteotomy with rigid external distraction (RED). Design Retrospective cohort study. Groups were separated by SABG timing: early mixed dentition (ages 68 years) or late mixed dentition (ages 9-11 years). The criterion for RED was negative overjet ≥8 mm, and sufficient dental development for RED. Setting Single tertiary care institution. Patients Patients with CLP that underwent SABG from 2010 to 2015. Exclusion criteria included syndromic conditions, SABG surgery at age >12 years, current age <12 years, and <2 years follow-up. 104 patients were included. Main outcome measures The number of RED candidates and treated patients. Results There was no statistical difference in the number of RED candidates ( P = .0718) nor treated patients ( P = .2716) based on SABG timing; stratification by laterality was also insignificant. Early SABG is associated with higher odds of being a RED candidate (pooled, unilateral, bilateral) and treated patient (pooled and unilateral); however, there were no statistically significant associations between SABG timing and the number of RED candidates and treated patients as determined by logistic regression models. Conclusion There is no statistically significant association between SABG timing and the odds of being a RED candidate or treated patient. Future prospective studies are recommended to assess the relationship between SABG timing and maxillary growth in patients with CLP.
This study was intended to evaluate the relationship between secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) timing and the alveolar volume in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). The material consisted of CTs of 35 patients (17 males, 18 females) with UCLP who underwent a one-stage primary cleft repair at a mean age of 8.4 months and SABG at different timings ranges of 1.8–18.8 years. The mean age at CT was 17.2 years. The relative coefficient (Ꞷ) which was independent from factors such as individual maxillary size, gender or age at the CT was introduced in order to compare volumes of the cleft-side in relation to the non-cleft-side alveolus. Pearson correlation coefficient r between Ꞷ coefficient and SABG timing was weak negative (r = −0.34, p = 0.045). The multiple regression analysis implied that the dependent variable-Ꞷ coefficient was associated with independent variables (cleft repair and SABG timings and age at CT) with r2 = 0.228. Only patient’s age at SABG explained the dependent variable (p = 0.003). The study cautiously indicates a tendency to larger alveolar volume following earlier timing of SABG. Nevertheless, the further research on a larger group of patients should be performed before formulating any clinical indications.