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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 655
Elisabet Roca-Millan ◽  
Enric Jané-Salas ◽  
Antonio Marí-Roig ◽  
Álvaro Jiménez-Guerra ◽  
Iván Ortiz-García ◽  

The demand for synthetic graft materials in implant dentistry is rising. This systematic review aims to evaluate the survival rate of dental implants placed simultaneously with bone regeneration procedures using the material β-tricalcium phosphate, one of the most promising synthetic graft materials. The electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. There were five randomized clinical trials, one of which was a non-randomized controlled clinical trial and four of which were observational studies without a control group included. Implant survival rate and other clinical, radiographic, and histological parameters did not differ from those of implants placed simultaneously with another type of graft material, or placed in blood clots or natural alveolar ridges. Based on the available literature, β-tricalcium phosphate seems to be a promising graft material in implant dentistry. Nevertheless, more randomized clinical trials, with long follow-up periods, preoperative and postoperative CBCT, and histological analysis, are necessary to assess its long-term behavior.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Xiaolu Zhang ◽  
Zhiwei Wang ◽  
Yiyuan Xian

Objective: The objective was to provide synthesized evidence on the efficacy of local anaesthetics and steroid injections for prevention and management of PHN, compared to the standard treatment using anti-viral and analgesic medications. The primary outcomes of interest were incidence of PHN and duration of neuralgic pain. Methods: Comprehensive searches were done systematically through PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Google scholar databases. Randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of local anaesthetics and steroid injections for preventing and managing PHN were included for this meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was done for papers published until 15th July 2021. Results: A total of 10 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. In the overall pooled analyses, compared to standard care/placebo, those receiving a combination of local anaesthetic and steroid injection had 55% lower risk of PHN at 3 months from onset of rash (RR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29; 0.70). Out of the different modes of intervention delivery i.e., intravenous, subcutaneous and nerve block, maximum beneficial effect in reducing the incidence of PHN was noted in nerve block (RR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34, 0.89). Conclusions: The meta-analysis provides some evidence to support the use of combined local anaesthetic and steroids in reducing risk of post-herpetic neuralgia and duration of neuralgic pain in patients with herpes zoster rash. doi: How to cite this:Zhang X, Wang Z, Xian Y. Efficacy of local anaesthetic and steroid combination in prevention of post-herpetic neuralgia: A meta-analysis. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Liqin Jing ◽  
Yanchun Song

Objective: To investigate the comparative diagnostic accuracy of cardiac computed tomography (CT) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for detecting infective endocarditis. Methods: Original publications published in English language before July, 2021 were thoroughly search in PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and Google Scholar literature databases. Studies were included if they used CT and/or TEE as an index test, presented data on valvular complications related to infective endocarditis, and used surgical findings as to the reference standard. Results:­­­ Literature screening identified fifteen studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that CT sensitivity for detecting valvular abscesses was higher than that of TEE [0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82 to 0.94; 11 studies involving 842 subjects) versus 0.74 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.84) P = 0.015; 12 studies involving 917 subjects]. TEE showed statistically significantly greater sensitivity than CT for detecting valvular vegetation [0.91 (95% CI: 0.84 to 0.97, 11 studies involving 971 subjects) versus 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.82), 12 studies involving 915 subjects, P =0.019. In case of leaflet detection, TEE showed statistically significantly higher sensitivity than CT (0.76 vs 0.46, P =0.010). Conclusion: CT performs statistically significantly better than TEE for detecting abscesses while TEE provides statistically significant superior results for detecting vegetation. There is a need for well-designed prospective studies to further corroborate these findings. doi: How to cite this:Jing L, Song Y. Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography vs transoesophageal echocardiography for infective endocarditis − A meta-analysis . Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Shazia Malik ◽  
Omar Alnaji ◽  
Mahnoor Malik ◽  
Teresa Gambale ◽  
Michel Piers Rathbone

Both mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) and systemic injuries trigger a transient neuroinflammatory response that result in similar clinical outcome. The ensuing physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms fail to subside in approximately 15–20% of the concussed population. Emotional impairments, particularly depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are commonly associated with poor recovery following mTBI. These emotional impairments also have a significant neuroinflammatory component. We hypothesized that the inflammatory cytokines seen in mTBI patients with emotional symptoms would coincide with those commonly seen in patients with emotional symptoms without mTBI. A systematic review was conducted to identify the most common neuroinflammatory cytokines in the mTBI population with psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, PTSD). The electronic databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PUBMED, and PSYCINFO were searched from data inception to 31 August 2021. A systematic screening approach was employed from screening to data analysis. A total of 994 articles were screened, 108 were selected for full article review, and 8 were selected for data analysis. The included studies consisted of 875 patients of which 81.3% were male. The mean sample size of patients with at least one mTBI was 73.8 ± 70.3 (range, 9–213), with a mean age of 33.9 ± 4.8 years. The most common cytokines associated with poor psychological outcomes involving PTSD and/or depression in the chronic mTBI population were IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, and CRP.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 30
Ashley Costello ◽  
Cian Hehir ◽  
Drona Sharma ◽  
Eithne Hudson ◽  
Owen Doody ◽  

Introduction: Psychotropic medications are commonly prescribed among adults with intellectual disability (ID), often in the absence of a psychiatric diagnosis. As such, there is great disparity between the estimated prevalence of mental illness and the rates of psychotropic medication use amongst people with ID. ‘Off-label’ use of these medications may account for much of this discrepancy, in particular their use in the management of challenging behaviour. This has come under scrutiny due to the myriad of side effects and the deficiency of high-quality data supporting their use for this indication. Understanding the causes and justifications for such disparity is essential in discerning the efficacy of current prescription practice. Objective: To explore the existing evidence base regarding the prescription and management of psychotropic medications in adults with ID. The aim will be achieved through identifying the psychotropic medications commonly prescribed, the underlying rationale(s) for their prescription and the evidence available that demonstrates their appropriateness and effectiveness. Additionally, the paper will seek to evaluate the availability of any existing guidance that informs the management of these medications, and the evidence and outcomes of psychotropic medication dose reduction and/or cessation interventions. Inclusion criteria: This review will consider studies that focus on the use of psychotropic medications amongst patients with ID. Methods: Research studies (qualitative, quantitative and mixed design) and Grey Literature (English) will be included. The search will be conducted without time restrictions. Databases will include: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, JBI Evidence Synthesis, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Databased of Systematic Reviews, PsycINFO and Scopus. A three-step search strategy will be followed, with results screened by two independent reviewers. Data will be extracted independently by two reviewers using a data extraction tool with results mapped and presented using a narrative form supported by tables and diagrams.

2022 ◽  
pp. BJGP.2021.0537
Loes de Kleijn ◽  
Julie Pedersen ◽  
Hanneke Rijkels-Otters ◽  
Alessandro Chiarotto ◽  
Bart Koes

Background: Long-term opioid treatment in patients with chronic pain is often ineffective and possibly harmful. These patients are often managed by general practitioners, who are calling for a clear overview of effective opioid reduction strategies for primary care. Aim: Evaluate effectiveness of opioid reduction strategies applicable in primary care for patients with chronic pain on long-term opioid treatment. Design: Systematic review of controlled trials and cohort studies. Method Literature search conducted in Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL register of trials, CINAHL, Google Scholar and PsychInfo. Studies evaluating opioid reduction interventions applicable in primary care among adults with long-term opioid treatment for chronic non-cancer pain were included. Risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) 2.0 tool or Risk-of-Bias in Non-randomized studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. Narrative synthesis was performed due to clinical heterogeneity in study designs and types of interventions. Results: Five RCTs and five cohort studies were included (total n= 1717, range 35-985) exploring various opioid reduction strategies. Six studies had high RoB, three moderate RoB, and one low RoB. Three cohort studies investigating a GP supervised opioid taper (critical ROBINS-I), an integrative pain treatment (moderate ROBINS-I) and group medical visits (critical ROBINS-I) demonstrated significant between-group opioid reduction. Conclusion: Results carefully point in the direction of a GP supervised tapering and multidisciplinary group therapeutic sessions to reduce long term opioid treatment. However, due to high risk of bias and small sample sizes, no firm conclusions can be made demonstrating need for more high-quality research.

2022 ◽  
Jacques JL Tamuzi ◽  
Ley M Muyaya ◽  
Amal Mitra ◽  
Peter Nyasulu

Objective To conduct a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of all recommended SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) vaccines in people living with HIV (PLWH), as well as an overview of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the vaccines in PLWH. Methods We searched six databases, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Medline, Medrxiv, Global research on COVID-19 database, and Google Scholar for studies investigating the effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on PLWH. Results of the association were summarised by SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion and level, vaccines efficacy and tolerability. A meta-analysis was performed for studies, using random-effects model and a pooled RR with 95% CI was reported. Results Twenty-three of the 1052 studies screened met the inclusion criteria. The review included 28, 246 participants among whom 79.55% (22,469/28, 246) were PLWH with median CD4 >=200 cells/mm3. The pooled estimate of SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion and positive neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination dose between PLWH vs HIV negative were RR 0.95 (95%CI: 0.92 to 0.99, P = 0.006) and 0.88 (95%CI: 0.82 to 0.95, P = 0.0007), respectively. The mean difference of IgG antibodies level (BAU/ml) was found higher in mRNA vaccines MD -1444.97 (95%CI: -1871.39 to -1018.55). PLWH with CD4 less than 500 cells/mm3 had 15% risk reduction of neutralizing antibodies response compared to those with CD4>=500 cells/mm3 (P = 0.003). The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness was 65% (95%CI: 56% to 72%, P <0.001) among vaccinated compared to unvaccinated PLWH. PLWH with CD4 count <350 cells/mm3 had lower vaccine effectiveness compared to CD4 count >=350 cells/mm3 with 59% vs 72%, respectively. Vaccine tolerability was the same between PLWH and HIV negatives. Conclusion According to our findings, PLWH with CD4>=200 cells/mm3 had lower immunogenicity and antigenicity in COVID-19 vaccines than HIV negatives. Additional doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are needful in PLWH.

2022 ◽  
pp. 019459982110688
Matthew J. Urban ◽  
Aoi Shimomura ◽  
Swapnil Shah ◽  
Tasher Losenegger ◽  
Jennifer Westrick ◽  

Objective To broadly synthesize the literature regarding rural health disparities in otolaryngology, categorize findings, and identify research gaps to stimulate future work. Study Design Scoping review. Data Sources A comprehensive literature search was performed in the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, and CINAHL. Review Methods The methods were developed in concordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist. Peer-reviewed, English-language, US-based studies examining a rural disparity in otolaryngology-related disease incidence, prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, or outcome were included. Descriptive studies, commentaries, reviews, and letters to the editor were excluded. Studies published prior to 1980 were excluded. Results The literature search resulted in 1536 unique abstracts and yielded 79 studies that met final criteria for inclusion. Seventy-five percent were published after 2010. The distribution of literature was as follows: otology (34.2%), head and neck cancer (20.3%), endocrine surgery (13.9%), rhinology and allergy (8.9%), trauma (5.1%), laryngology (3.8%), other pediatrics (2.5%), and adult sleep (1.3%). Studies on otolaryngology health care systems also accounted for 10.1%. The most common topics studied were practice patterns (41%) and epidemiology (27%), while the Southeast (47%) was the most common US region represented, and database study (42%) was the most common study design. Conclusion Overall, there was low-quality evidence with large gaps in the literature in all subspecialties, most notably facial plastic surgery, laryngology, adult sleep, and pediatrics. Importantly, there were few studies on intervention and zero studies on resident exposure to rural populations, which will be critical to making rural otolaryngology care more equitable in the future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Aranjit Singh Randhawa ◽  
Norhayati Mohd Noor ◽  
Mohd Khairi Md Daud ◽  
Baharudin Abdullah

Bilastine is a non-sedating second generation H1 oral antihistamine (OAH) for treating allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. The effect of bilastine has not previously been evaluated in a meta-analysis. The aim of this review was to determine the efficacy and safety of bilastine in treating AR. An electronic literature search was performed using Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Science Direct and Google Scholar up to March 2021. Randomized controlled trials comparing bilastine with placebo and standard pharmacotherapy were included. The included studies must have diagnosis of AR established by clinicians and the outcomes must have a minimum of 2 weeks of follow-up period. The primary outcomes assessed were total symptom score (TSS), nasal symptom score (NSS) and non-nasal symptom score (NNSS). The secondary outcomes were discomfort due to rhinitis, quality of life (QOL) and adverse events. The risk of bias and quality of evidence for all studies were appraised. The meta-analysis was done using Review Manager 5.3 software based on the random-effects model. The search identified 135 records after removal of duplicates. Following screening and review of the records, fifteen full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Five trials involving 3,329 patients met the inclusion criteria. Bilastine was superior to placebo in improving TSS, NSS, NNSS, rhinitis discomfort score and QOL but has comparable efficacy with other OAHs in TSS, NSS, NNS, rhinitis discomfort score and QOL. There was no difference in adverse effects when bilastine was compared against placebo and other OAHs except for somnolence. Bilastine has fewer incidence of somnolence compared to cetirizine. The overall quality of evidence ranged from moderate to high quality. Bilastine is effective and safe in treating the overall symptoms of AR with comparable efficacy and safety with other OAHs except somnolence. Whilst bilastine has similar efficacy to cetirizine, somnolence is notably less in bilastine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 9
Kathryn A. McGurk ◽  
Melpomeni Kasapi ◽  
James S. Ware

Background: Taurine, 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an amino acid found in animal products. Taurine is produced for human consumption as a supplement and ingredient in beverages. Supplementation is a safe, inexpensive, and effective treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in domestic mammals, however it is currently unlicensed in Europe and the United States for human medical treatment. Recent genome-wide association studies of DCM have identified the locus of the taurine transporter (SLC6A6). To assess whether taurine supplementation may be a novel therapeutic option for DCM, we undertook a systematic review. Methods: Four electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register, Web of Science, Biomed Central) were searched until 11/03/21. Included studies of human participants reported measured phenotypes or symptoms for cardiomyopathy, heart failure (HF), or altered left ventricle structure or function, administering taurine in any formulation, by any method. Non-English articles were excluded. Meta-analysis was completed in R software (version 3.6.0). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale quality assessment score (NOQAS) tool was used to assess bias. Results: 285 articles were identified, of which eleven met our criteria for inclusion. Only one paper was deemed “high quality” using the NOQAS tool. Taurine supplementation varied across studies; by dose (500 mg to 6g per day), frequency (once to thrice daily), delivery method (tablet, capsule, drink, powder), and duration (2 to 48 weeks). Patient inclusion was all-cause HF patients with ejection fraction (EF) <50% and no study was specific to DCM. While improvements in diastolic and systolic function, exercise capacity, and haemodynamic parameters were described, only EF and stroke volume were measured in enough studies to complete a meta-analysis; the association was not significant with all-cause HF (P<0.05). No significant safety concerns were reported. Conclusions: A formal clinical trial is needed to address whether taurine supplementation is beneficial to the approximately 1/250 individuals with DCM in the population.

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