Journal of Clinical Medicine
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Published By Mdpi Ag

2077-0383

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 448
Author(s):  
Julia Maruani ◽  
Pierre A. Geoffroy

Light exerts powerful biological effects on mood regulation. Whereas the source of photic information affecting mood is well established at least via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) secreting the melanopsin photopigment, the precise circuits that mediate the impact of light on depressive behaviors are not well understood. This review proposes two distinct retina–brain pathways of light effects on mood: (i) a suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-dependent pathway with light effect on mood via the synchronization of biological rhythms, and (ii) a SCN-independent pathway with light effects on mood through modulation of the homeostatic process of sleep, alertness and emotion regulation: (1) light directly inhibits brain areas promoting sleep such as the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), and activates numerous brain areas involved in alertness such as, monoaminergic areas, thalamic regions and hypothalamic regions including orexin areas; (2) moreover, light seems to modulate mood through orexin-, serotonin- and dopamine-dependent pathways; (3) in addition, light activates brain emotional processing areas including the amygdala, the nucleus accumbens, the perihabenular nucleus, the left hippocampus and pathways such as the retina–ventral lateral geniculate nucleus and intergeniculate leaflet–lateral habenula pathway. This work synthetizes new insights into the neural basis required for light influence mood


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 450
Author(s):  
Jaesik Park ◽  
Sung Un Kim ◽  
Ho Joong Choi ◽  
Sang Hyun Hong ◽  
Min Suk Chae

This study aimed to determine the association between serum D-dimer levels and the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Clinical data of 675 patients undergoing LDLT were retrospectively analyzed. The exclusion criteria included a history of kidney dysfunction, emergency cases, and missing data. The final study population of 617 patients was divided into the normal and high D-dimer groups (cutoff: 0.5 mg/L). After LDLT, 145 patients (23.5%) developed AKI. A high D-dimer level (>0.5 mg/L) was an independent predictor of postoperative development of AKI in the multivariate analysis when combined with diabetes mellitus [DM], platelet count, and hourly urine output. AKI was significantly higher in the high D-dimer group than in the normal D-dimer group (odds ratio [OR], 2.792; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.227–6.353). Patients with a high D-dimer exhibited a higher incidence of early allograft dysfunction, longer intensive care unit stay, and a higher mortality rate. These results could improve the risk stratification of postoperative AKI development by encouraging the determination of preoperative D-dimer levels in patients undergoing LDLT.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 447
Author(s):  
Tomoko Takamatsu ◽  
Gaku Yamanaka ◽  
Koko Ohno ◽  
Kanako Hayashi ◽  
Yusuke Watanabe ◽  
...  

Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of West syndrome (WS). Inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β(IL-1β), have been reported to be associated with epilepsy. However, the assessment of cytokine changes in humans is not always simple or deterministic. This study aimed to elucidate the immunological mechanism of WS. We examined the intracellular cytokine profiles of peripheral blood cells collected from 13 patients with WS, using flow cytometry, and measured their serum cytokine levels. These were compared with those of 10 age-matched controls. We found that the WS group had significantly higher percentages of inter IL-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA)-positive monocytes, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in their CD8+ T cells than the control group. Interestingly, the group with sequelae revealed significantly lower levels of intracellular IFN-γ and IL-6 in their CD8+ T and CD4+ T cells, respectively, than the group without sequelae. There was no correlation between the ratios of positive cells and the serum levels of a particular cytokine in the WS patients. These cytokines in the peripheral immune cells might be involved in the neuroinflammation of WS, even in the absence of infectious or immune disease. Overall, an immunological approach using flow cytometry analysis might be useful for immunological studies of epilepsy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 446
Author(s):  
Michał Gębka ◽  
Anna Bajer-Czajkowska ◽  
Sandra Pyza ◽  
Krzysztof Safranow ◽  
Wojciech Poncyljusz ◽  
...  

Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of collaterals on the evolution of hypodensity on non-contrast CT (NCCT) in anterior circulation stroke with reperfusion by mechanical thrombectomy (MT). Methods: We retrospectively included stroke patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion who were reperfused by MT in early and late time window. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based software was used to calculate of hypodensity volumes at baseline NCCT (V1) and at follow-up NCCT 24 h after MT (V2), along with the difference between the two volumes (V2-V1) and the follow-up (V2)/baseline (V1) volume ratio (V2/V1). The same software was used to classify collateral status by using a 4-point scale where the score of zero indicated no collaterals and the score of three represented contrast filling of all collaterals. The volumetric values were correlated with the collateral scores. Results: Collateral scores had significant negative correlation with V1 (p = 0.035), V2, V2− V1 and V2/V1 (p < 0.001). In cases with collateral score = 3, V2 was significantly smaller or absent compared to V1; in those with collateral score 2, V2 was slightly larger than V1, and in those with scores 1 and 0 V2 was significantly larger than V1. These relationships were observed in both early and late time windows. Conclusions: The collateral status determined the evolution of the baseline hypodensity on NCCT in patients with anterior circulation stroke who had MT reperfusion. Damage can be stable or reversible in patients with good collaterals while in those with poor collaterals tissues that initially appear normal will frequently appear as necrotic after 24 h. With good collaterals, it is stable or can be reversible while with poor collaterals, normal looking tissue frequently appears as necrotic in follow-up exam. Hence, acute hypodensity represents different states of the ischemic brain parenchyma.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 449
Author(s):  
Sok-Sithikun Bun ◽  
Florian Asarisi ◽  
Nathan Heme ◽  
Fabien Squara ◽  
Didier Scarlatti ◽  
...  

Background: In patients with complete atrioventricular block (AVB), the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with pause-dependent AVB (PD-AVB) is not known. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of PD-AVB in a population of patients with complete (or high-grade) AVB. Methods: Twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and/or telemonitoring from patients admitted (from September 2020 to November 2021) for complete (or high-degree) AVB were prospectively collected at the University Hospital of Nice. The ECG tracings were analyzed by an electrophysiologist to determine the underlying mechanism of PD-AVB. Results: 100 patients were admitted for complete (or high-grade) AVB (men 55%; 82 ± 12 years). Arterial hypertension was present in 68% of the patients. Baseline QRS width was 117 ± 32 ms, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 56 ± 7%. Fourteen patients (14%) with PD-AVB were identified, and presented similar clinical characteristics in comparison with patients without PD-AVB, except for syncope (which was present in 86% versus 51% in the non-PD-AVB patients, p = 0.01). PD-AVB sequence was induced by: Premature atrial contraction (8/14), premature ventricular contraction (5/14), His extrasystole (1/14), conduction block in a branch (1/14), and atrial tachycardia termination (1/14). All patients with PD-AVB received a dual-chamber pacemaker during hospitalization. Conclusion: The prevalence of PD-AVB was 14%, and may be underestimated. PD-AVB episodes were more likely associated with syncope in comparison with patients without PD-AVB.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 431
Author(s):  
Su Young Lee ◽  
Eric Chung ◽  
Eun-Suk Cho ◽  
Jae-Hoon Lee ◽  
Eun Jung Park ◽  
...  

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of combined sarcopenia and inflammation classification (CSIC) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The skeletal muscle index (SMI) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were measured in 1270 patients who underwent surgery between January 2005 and April 2014. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the correlation of sarcopenia, NLR, and CSIC, with progression-free survival (PFS). The integrated area under the curve (iAUC) was used to compare the discriminatory performance of each model. Using the cut-off values for SMI suggested by Martin et al. and for an NLR of 2.26, the CSIC was defined as follows: nonsarcopenia with low NLR (group 1), nonsarcopenia with high NLR (group 2), sarcopenia with low NLR (group 3), and sarcopenia with high NLR (group 4). Sarcopenia alone was not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis identified that CSIC (group 4 vs. group 1; hazard ratio (HR), 1.726; 95% CI, 1.130–2.634; p = 0.011) and NLR (HR, 1.600; 95% CI, 1.203–2.128; p = 0.001) were independently associated with PFS. The CSIC improved the prediction accuracy of PFS compared with NLR (iAUC mean difference = 0.011; 95% CI, 0.0018–0.028). In conclusion, the combination of sarcopenia and NLR could improve prognostic accuracy, and thus compensate for the limitation of sarcopenia.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 441
Author(s):  
Laura Quellhorst ◽  
Grit Barten-Neiner ◽  
Andrés de Roux ◽  
Roland Diel ◽  
Pontus Mertsch ◽  
...  

Patients with bronchiectasis feature considerable symptom burden and reduced health-related quality of life (QOL). We provide the psychometric validation of the German translation of the disease-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire-Bronchiectasis (QOL-B), version 3.1, using baseline data of adults consecutively enrolled into the prospective German bronchiectasis registry PROGNOSIS. Overall, 904 patients with evaluable QOL-B scores were included. We observed no relevant floor or ceiling effects. Internal consistency was good to excellent (Cronbach’s α ≥0.73 for each scale). QOL-B scales discriminated between patients based on prior pulmonary exacerbations and hospitalizations, breathlessness, bronchiectasis severity index, lung function, sputum volume, Pseudomonas aeruginosa status and the need for regular pharmacotherapy, except for Social Functioning, Vitality and Emotional Functioning scales. We observed moderate to strong convergence between several measures of disease severity and QOL-B scales, except for Social and Emotional Functioning. Two-week test-retest reliability was good, with intraclass correlation coefficients ≥0.84 for each scale. Minimal clinical important difference ranged between 8.5 for the Respiratory Symptoms and 14.1 points for the Social Functioning scale. Overall, the German translation of the QOL-B, version 3.1, has good validity and test-retest reliability among a nationally representative adult bronchiectasis cohort. However, responsiveness of QOL-B scales require further investigation during registry follow-up.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 435
Author(s):  
Paulina S. C. Kliem ◽  
Kai Tisljar ◽  
Sira M. Baumann ◽  
Pascale Grzonka ◽  
Gian Marco De Marchis ◽  
...  

Respiratory infections following status epilepticus (SE) are frequent, and associated with higher mortality, prolonged ICU stay, and higher rates of refractory SE. Lack of airway protection may contribute to respiratory infectious complications. This study investigates the order and frequency of physicians treating a simulated SE following a systematic Airways-Breathing-Circulation-Disability-Exposure (ABCDE) approach, identifies risk factors for non-adherence, and analyzes the compliance of an ABCDE guided approach to SE with current guidelines. We conducted a prospective single-blinded high-fidelity trial at a Swiss academic simulator training center. Physicians of different affiliations were confronted with a simulated SE. Physicians (n = 74) recognized SE and performed a median of four of the five ABCDE checks (interquartile range 3–4). Thereof, 5% performed a complete assessment. Airways were checked within the recommended timeframe in 46%, breathing in 66%, circulation in 92%, and disability in 96%. Head-to-toe (exposure) examination was performed in 15%. Airways were protected in a timely manner in 14%, oxygen supplied in 69%, and antiseizure drugs (ASDs) administered in 99%. Participants’ neurologic affiliation was associated with performance of fewer checks (regression coefficient −0.49; p = 0.015). We conclude that adherence to the ABCDE approach in a simulated SE was infrequent, but, if followed, resulted in adherence to treatment steps and more frequent protection of airways.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 430
Author(s):  
Charlotte Girard-Guyonvarc’h ◽  
Mathilde Harel ◽  
Cem Gabay

Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family, whose activity is tightly controlled at the level of production, as well as signalization. Notably, it is buffered by its natural inhibitor, IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP), which is massively present in circulation in normal and in most pathological conditions, thus preventing harmful pro-inflammatory systemic effects of IL-18. IL-18 has long been considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of various inflammatory diseases. However, a first clinical trial using recombinant IL-18BP for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis gave disappointing results. Direct measurements of unbound, bioactive, free form of circulating IL-18 demonstrated that IL-18 was more specifically involved in adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) but also in their most severe complication, macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). More importantly, administration of recombinant IL-18BP to patients with AOSD, and sJIA with MAS, showed promising results. This review summarizes available data regarding IL-18 and IL-18BP in AOSD and sJIA in mouse models and humans and shows the importance of IL-18/IL-18BP imbalance in these conditions, leading to the conclusion that IL-18, particularly free IL-18, may be a useful biomarker in these diseases and an interesting therapeutic target.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 432
Author(s):  
Tudor Lucian Pop ◽  
Cornel Olimpiu Aldea ◽  
Dan Delean ◽  
Bogdan Bulata ◽  
Dora Boghiţoiu ◽  
...  

Objectives: In children, acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe condition with high mortality. As some patients need liver transplantation (LT), it is essential to predict the fatal evolution and to refer them early for LT if needed. Our study aimed to evaluate the prognostic criteria and scores for assessing the outcome in children with ALF. Methods: Data of 161 children with ALF (54.66% female, mean age 7.66 ± 6.18 years) were analyzed based on final evolution (32.91% with fatal evolution or LT) and etiology. We calculated on the first day of hospitalization the PELD score (109 children), MELD, and MELD-Na score (52 children), and King’s College Criteria (KCC) for all patients. The Nazer prognostic index and Wilson index for predicting mortality were calculated for nine patients with ALF in Wilson’s disease (WD). Results: PELD, MELD, and MELD-Na scores were significantly higher in patients with fatal evolution (21.04 ± 13.28 vs. 13.99 ± 10.07, p = 0.0023; 36.20 ± 19.51 vs. 20.08 ± 8.57, p < 0.0001; and 33.07 ± 8.29 vs. 20.08 ± 8.47, p < 0.0001, respectively). Moreover, age, bilirubin, albumin, INR, and hemoglobin significantly differed in children with fatal evolution. Function to etiology, PELD, MELD, MELD-Na, and KCC accurately predicted fatal evolution in toxic ALF (25.33 vs. 9.90, p = 0.0032; 37.29 vs. 18.79, p < 0.0001; 34.29 vs. 19.24, p = 0.0002, respectively; with positive predicting value 100%, negative predicting value 88.52%, and accuracy 89.23% for King’s College criteria). The Wilson index for predicting mortality had an excellent predictive strength (100% sensibility and specificity), better than the Nazer prognostic index. Conclusions: Prognostic scores may be used to predict the fatal evolution of ALF in children in correlation with other parameters or criteria. Early estimation of the outcome of ALF is essential, mainly in countries where emergency LT is problematic, as the transfer to a specialized center could be delayed, affecting survival chances.


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