alveolar bone
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Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 142
Alecsandru Ionescu ◽  
Aliona Dodi ◽  
Lucian Cristian Petcu ◽  
Mihnea Ioan Nicolescu

We aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of the minimally invasive “open healing” flapless technique for post-extraction socket and alveolar ridge preservation, while assessing the alveolar bone changes. The study enrolled (n = 104) patients (0.55 sex ratio), with atraumatic extraction of (N = 135) hopeless teeth, followed by either immediate placement of tissue level implants (N1 = 26), or later stage implant insertion (N2 = 109). No flap was raised in either situation. Post-extraction sockets were filled with deproteinized bovine bone granules and covered by collagen resorbable membrane—left purposely exposed during healing. This yielded an uneventful healing, with sufficient bone formation, while avoiding soft-tissue problems. The need for additional augmentation was assessed clinically and by calibrated CBCT scans at six months, before either loading (N1) or implant insertion (N2). Implant success and survival rate were evaluated at 12-, 24-, and 60-month follow-up control sessions. The inserted implants had a survival rate of 98.5% and a success rate of 94.8% at five-year follow-up. Open healing technique with flapless approach can be favorable for preserving the 3D architecture of the post-extraction socket, as well as the alveolar ridge width and height.

Lucy Y. Tao ◽  
Katarzyna B. Łagosz-Ćwik ◽  
Jolanda M.A. Hogervorst ◽  
Ton Schoenmaker ◽  
Aleksander M. Grabiec ◽  

Diabetes and periodontitis are comorbidities and may share common pathways. Several reports indicate that diabetes medication metformin may be beneficial for the periodontal status of periodontitis patients. Further research using appropriate cell systems of the periodontium, the tissue that surrounds teeth may reveal the possible mechanism. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts anchor teeth in bone and play a role in the onset of both alveolar bone formation and degradation, the latter by inducing osteoclast formation from adherent precursor cells. Therefore, a cell model including this type of cells is ideal to study the influence of metformin on both processes. We hypothesize that metformin will enhance bone formation, as described for osteoblasts, whereas the effects of metformin on osteoclast formation is yet undetermined. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of osteogenic medium and 0.2 or 1 mM metformin. The influence of metformin on osteoclast formation was first studied in PDLF cultures supplemented with peripheral blood leukocytes, containing osteoclast precursors. Finally, the effect of metformin on osteoclast precursors was studied in cultures of CD14+ monocytes that were stimulated with M-CSF and receptor activator of Nf-κB ligand (RANKL). No effects of metformin were observed on osteogenesis: not on alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin red deposition, nor on the expression of osteogenic markers RUNX-2, Collagen I and Osteonectin. Metformin inhibited osteoclast formation and accordingly downregulated the genes involved in osteoclastogenesis: RANKL, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and osteoclast fusion gene DC-STAMP. Osteoclast formation on both plastic and bone as well as bone resorption was inhibited by metformin in M-CSF and RANKL stimulated monocyte cultures, probably by reduction of RANK expression. The present study unraveling the positive effect of metformin in periodontitis patients at the cellular level, indicates that metformin inhibits osteoclast formation and activity, both when orchestrated by periodontal ligament fibroblasts and in cytokine driven osteoclast formation assays. The results indicate that metformin could have a systemic beneficiary effect on bone by inhibiting osteoclast formation and activity.

Computation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
M. Maithri ◽  
Dhanush G. Ballal ◽  
Santhosh Kumar ◽  
U. Raghavendra ◽  
Anjan Gudigar ◽  

The present study evaluated a newly developed computational tool (CT) to assess the alveolar bone space and the alveolar crest angle and compares it to dentist assessment (GT). The novel tool consisted of a set of processes initiated with image enhancement, points localization, and angle and area calculations. In total, we analyzed 148 sites in 39 radiographic images, and among these, 42 sites were selected and divided into two groups of non-periodontitis and periodontitis. The alveolar space area (ASA) and alveolar crest angle (ACA) were estimated. The agreement between the computer software and the ground truth was analyzed using the Bland–Altman plot. The sensitivity and specificity of the computer tool were measured using the ROC curve. The Bland–Altman plot showed an agreement between the ground truth and the computational tool in all of the parameters assessed. The ROC curve showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for 12.67 mm of the alveolar space area. The maximum percentage of sensitivity and specificity were 80.95% for 13.63 degrees of the alveolar crest angle. Computer tool assessment provides accurate disease severity and treatment monitoring for evaluating the alveolar space area (ASA) and the alveolar crest angle (ACA).

2022 ◽  
Lisa Schuldt ◽  
Katrin von Brandenstein ◽  
Collin Jacobs ◽  
Judit Symmank

The initiation of a spatially and temporally limited inflammation is essential for tissue and bone remodeling by the periodontal ligament (PdL) located between teeth and alveolar bone. Obesity-associated hyperlipidemic changes may impair PdL fibroblast (PdLF) functions, disturbing their inflammatory response to mechanical stress such as those occurring during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). Recently, we reported an attenuated pro inflammatory response of human PdLF (HPdLF) to compressive forces when stimulated with monounsaturated oleic acid (OA). Fatty acids, including OA, could serve as alternative source of acetyl-CoA, thereby affecting epigenetic histone marks such as histone 3 lysine acetylation (H3Kac) in a lipid metabolism-dependent manner. In this study, we therefore aimed to investigate the extent to which OA exerts its anti-inflammatory effect via changes in H3Kac. Six-hour compressed HPdLF showed increased H3Kac when cultured with OA. Inhibition of histone deacetylases resulted in a comparable IL10 increase as observed in compressed OA cultures. In contrast, inhibition of histone acetyltransferases, particularly p300/CBP, in compressed HPdLF exposed to OA led to an inflammatory response comparable to compressed control cells. OA-dependent increased association of H3Kac to IL10 promoter regions in force-stressed HPdLF further strengthened the assumption that OA exhibits its anti-inflammatory properties via modulation of this epigenetic mark. In conclusion, our study strongly suggests that obesity-related hyperlipidemia affect the functions of PdL cells via alterations in their epigenetic code. Since epigenetic inhibitors are already widely used clinically, they may hold promise for novel approaches to limit obesity-related risks during OTM.

Qian Peng ◽  
Bingkun Zhao ◽  
Jie Lin ◽  
Haixia Liu ◽  
Rong Zhou ◽  

Object: The aims of the study were to explore the protective effects of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) on periodontitis and to determine the underlying mechanisms.Methods: A rat periodontitis model was constructed by injecting LPS and SPRC (0, 25, and 50 mg/kg/d) was administered intraperitoneally. H2S and CSE level were detected. The alveolar bone level was evaluated by micro-CT, HE staining and methylene blue staining analysis. Inflammation-related factors, Treg and Th17 cells were detected by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, Western blot and flow cytometry. Phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and CREB were analysed.Results: The administration of SPRC significantly increased the expression of CSE in the gingival tissue and the concentration of endogenous H2S in the peripheral blood. Simultaneously, SPRC significantly inhibited the resorption of alveolar bone based on the H&E staining, micro-CT and methylene blue staining analysis. Compared with the periodontitis group, the levels of IL-17A, IL-10 were downregulated and IL-6,TGF-β1 were upregulated in the SPRC groups. In the SPRC group, the percentage of TH17 cells and the expression of ROR-γt were downregulated, while the percentage of Tregs and the expression of Foxp3 were upregulated accompanied with inhibition of phosphorylation ERK1/2 and CREB.Conclusion: SPRC can prevent the progression of periodontitis by regulating the Th17/Treg balance by inhibition of the ERK/CREB signalling pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
M. Abdul Alim ◽  
Duncan Njenda ◽  
Anna Lundmark ◽  
Marta Kaminska ◽  
Leif Jansson ◽  

Chronic periodontitis (CP) is a bacteria-driven inflammatory disease characterized by the breakdown of gingival tissue, the periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, leading ultimately to tooth loss. We previously reported the pleckstrin gene (PLEK) to be highly upregulated in gingival tissue of patients with CP and the only gene concurrently upregulated in other inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular diseases. Using saliva from 169 individuals diagnosed with CP and healthy controls, we investigated whether pleckstrin could serve as a novel biomarker of periodontitis. Additionally, we explored signal pathways involved in the regulation of PLEK using human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Pleckstrin levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the saliva samples of patients with CP compared to controls and closely associated with CP severity. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of pleckstrin in inflammatory cells and gingival fibroblasts of CP patients. To explore the signal pathways involved in pleckstrin regulation, we stimulated HGFs with either interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) alone, or in combination with inhibitors targeting c-Jun N-terminal kinase, tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C, or p38 MAP kinase. Results showed that IL-1β and LPS significantly increased PLEK mRNA and pleckstrin protein levels. VX-745, the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor significantly decreased IL-1β- and LPS-induced pleckstrin levels at both the mRNA and the protein level. Together, these findings show that pleckstrin could serve as a salivary biomarker for the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis and a regulator of inflammation via the p38 MAP kinase pathway.

Claudine Bommer ◽  
Tobias Waller ◽  
Monika Hilbe ◽  
Daniel Wiedemeier ◽  
Nina Meyer ◽  

Abstract Objectives This study’s aim was to investigate the safety and performance of a self-assembling peptide matrix (SAPM) P11-4 for the treatment of periodontal disease in a controlled pre-clinical study. Materials and methods Acute buccal bony dehiscence defects (LxW: 5 × 3 mm) were surgically created on the distal root of four teeth on one mandible side of 7 beagle dogs followed by another identical surgery 8 weeks later on the contralateral side. SAPM P11-4 (with and without root conditioning with 24% EDTA (T1, T2)), Emdogain® (C) and a sham intervention (S) were randomly applied on the four defects at each time point. Four weeks after the second surgery and treatment, the animals were sacrificed, the mandibles measured by micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) and sections of the tissue were stained and evaluated histologically. Results Clinically and histologically, no safety concerns or pathological issues due to the treatments were observed in any of the study groups at any time point. All groups showed overall similar results after 4 and 12 weeks of healing regarding new cementum, functionality of newly formed periodontal ligament and recovery of height and volume of the new alveolar bone and mineral density. Conclusion A controlled clinical study in humans should be performed in a next step as no adverse effects or safety issues, which might affect clinical usage of the product, were observed. Clinical relevance The synthetic SAPM P11-4 may offer an alternative to the animal-derived product Emdogain® in the future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Syed Taufiqul Islam ◽  
Yoshihito Kurashige ◽  
Erika Minowa ◽  
Koki Yoshida ◽  
Durga Paudel ◽  

AbstractThe epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) are essential in preventing ankylosis between the alveolar bone and the tooth (dentoalveolar ankylosis). Despite extensive research, the mechanism by which ERM cells suppress ankylosis remains uncertain; perhaps its varied population is to reason. Therefore, in this study, eighteen unique clones of ERM (CRUDE) were isolated using the single-cell limiting dilution and designated as ERM 1–18. qRT-PCR, ELISA, and western blot analyses revealed that ERM-2 and -3 had the highest and lowest amelogenin expression, respectively. Mineralization of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLF) was reduced in vitro co-culture with CRUDE ERM, ERM-2, and -3 cells, but recovered when an anti-amelogenin antibody was introduced. Transplanted rat molars grown in ERM-2 cell supernatants produced substantially less bone than those cultured in other cell supernatants; inhibition was rescued when an anti-amelogenin antibody was added to the supernatants. Anti-Osterix antibody staining was used to confirm the development of new bones. In addition, next-generation sequencing (NGS) data were analysed to discover genes related to the distinct roles of CRUDE ERM, ERM-2, and ERM-3. According to this study, amelogenin produced by ERM cells helps to prevent dentoalveolar ankylosis and maintain periodontal ligament (PDL) space, depending on their clonal diversity.

2022 ◽  
pp. 002203452110625
K. Wang ◽  
C. Xu ◽  
X. Xie ◽  
Y. Jing ◽  
P.J. Chen ◽  

Wnt–β-catenin signaling plays a key role in orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), a common clinical practice for malocclusion correction. However, its targeted periodontal ligament (PDL) progenitor cells remain largely unclear. In this study, we first showed a synchronized increase in Wnt–β-catenin levels and Axin2+ PDL progenitor cell numbers during OTM using immunostaining of β-catenin in wild-type mice and X-gal staining in the Axin2-LacZ knock-in line. Next, we demonstrated time-dependent increases in Axin2+ PDL progenitors and their progeny cell numbers within PDL and alveolar bones during OTM using a one-time tamoxifen-induced Axin2 tracing line ( Axin2CreERT2/+; R26RtdTomato/+). Coimmunostaining images displayed both early and late bone markers (such as RUNX2 and DMP1) in the Axin2Lin PDL cells. Conversely, ablation of Axin2+ PDL cells via one-time tamoxifen-induced diphtheria toxin subunit A (DTA) led to a drastic decrease in osteogenic activity (as reflected by alkaline phosphatase) in PDL and alveolar bone. There was also a decrease in new bone mass and a significant reduction in the mineral apposition rate on both the control side (to a moderate degree) and the OTM side (to a severe degree). Thus, we conclude that the Axin2+ PDL cells (the Wnt-targeted key cells) are highly sensitive to orthodontic tension force and play a critical role in OTM-induced PDL expansion and alveolar bone formation. Future drug development targeting the Axin2+ PDL progenitor cells may accelerate alveolar bone formation during orthodontic treatment.

2022 ◽  
Siying Li ◽  
Hongyi Yang ◽  
Qinyu Duan ◽  
Hongyu Bao ◽  
Aodi Li ◽  

Abstract Background:Autologous platelet concentrate has been widely used to encourage the regeneration of hard and soft tissues. Up to now, there are three generations of autologous platelet concentrates. Many studies have shown that different autologous platelet concentrates have different healing effects. However, these differences still need to be further verified and discussed. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare the effects of platelet-rich fibrin, concentrated growth factor and platelet-poor plasma on the healing of tooth extraction sockets in New Zealand rabbits. Methods:A total of 24 healthy male New Zealand white rabbits aged 8-12 weeks were selected. The experimental animals were randomly divided into four groups: three experimental groups were respectively implanted with PPP, CGF and PRF gel after bilateral mandibular anterior teeth were extracted, and the control group did not implant any material. The alveolar bone of the mandibular anterior region was taken at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after operation. The height and width of the extraction wound were detected by CBCT, the growth of the new bone was observed by HE and Masson staining, and the expression of osteogenic genes was detected by real-time PCR. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS statistical package 22.0.Results: The radiological results showed that alveolar bone absorption in all groups gradually increased over time. However, the experimental groups showed lower amounts of bone absorption. The histological results showed that new bone formation was observed in all groups. Over time, the new bone trabeculae of the CGF group became closely aligned while those in the PPP and PRF groups remained scattered. PCR results showed that the expression of BMP-2 and ALP was higher in the experimental groups than the control group.Conclusion: In conclusion, the application of PRF, CGF and PPP in tooth extraction sockets effectively promoted bone regeneration. CGF showed more effective bone induction and tissue regeneration ability in the long term.

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