risk of bias
Recently Published Documents





Valerie Wing Yu Wong ◽  
Ying Huang ◽  
Wan In Wei ◽  
Samuel Yeung Shan Wong ◽  
Kin On Kwok

Abstract Background Despite clear evidence of benefits in acute-care hospitals, controversy over the effectiveness of IPC measures for MDROs is perceptible and evidence-based practice has not been established. Objective To investigate the effects of IPC interventions on MDRO colonization and infections in LTCFs. Data sources Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL from inception to September 2020. Eligibility criteria Original and peer-reviewed articles examining the post-intervention effects on MDRO colonization and infections in LTCFs. Interventions (i) Horizontal interventions: administrative engagement, barrier precautions, education, environmental cleaning, hand hygiene, performance improvement, and source control; and (ii) vertical intervention: active surveillance plus decolonization. Study appraisal and synthesis We employed a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the pooled risk ratios (pRRs) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization by intervention duration; and conducted subgroup analyses on different intervention components. Study quality was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tools. Results Of 3877 studies identified, 19 were eligible for inclusion (eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies reported outcomes associated with MRSA (15 studies), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) (four studies), Clostridium difficile (two studies), and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) (two studies). Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pRRs were close to unity regardless of intervention duration (long: RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.60–1.10]; medium: RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.25–2.68]; short: RR 0.95 [95% CI 0.53–1.69]). Vertical interventions in studies with a small sample size showed significant reductions in MRSA colonization while horizontal interventions did not. All studies involving active administrative engagement reported reductions. The risk of bias was high in all but two studies. Conclusions Our meta-analysis did not show any beneficial effects from IPC interventions on MRSA reductions in LTCFs. Our findings highlight that the effectiveness of interventions in these facilities is likely conditional on resource availability—particularly decolonization and barrier precautions, due to their potential adverse events and uncertain effectiveness. Hence, administrative engagement is crucial for all effective IPC programmes. LTCFs should consider a pragmatic approach to reinforce standard precautions as routine practice and implement barrier precautions and decolonization to outbreak responses only.

Megan B. Sands ◽  
Ian Wee ◽  
Meera Agar ◽  
Janette L. Vardy

Abstract Purpose Delirium leads to poor outcomes for patients and careers and has negative impacts on staff and service provision. Cancer rates in elderly populations are increasing and frequently, cancer diagnoses are a co-morbidity in the context of frailty. Data relating to the epidemiology of delirium in hospitalised cancer patients are limited. With the overarching purpose of improving delirium detection and reducing the morbidity and mortality of delirium in cancer patients, we reviewed the epidemiological data and approach to delirium detection in hospitalised, adult oncology patients. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched from January 1996 to August 2017. Key concepts were delirium, cancer, inpatient oncology and delirium screening/detection. Results Of 896 unique studies identified; 91 met full-text review criteria. Of 12 eligible studies, four applied recommended case ascertainment methods to all patients, three used delirium screening tools alone or with case ascertainment tools sub-optimally applied, four used tools not recommended for delirium screening or case ascertainment, one used the Confusion Assessment Method with insufficient information to determine if it met case ascertainment status. Two studies presented delirium incidence rates: 7.8%, and 17% respectively. Prevalence rates ranged from 18–33% for general medical or oncology wards; 42–58% for Acute Palliative Care Units (APCU); and for older cancer patients: 22% and 57%. Three studies reported reversibility; 26% and 49% respectively (APCUs) and 30% (older patients with cancer). Six studies had a low risk of bias according to QUADAS-2 criteria; all studies in the APCU setting were rated at higher risk of bias. Tool selection, study flow and recruitment bias reduced study quality. Conclusion The knowledge base for improved interventions and clinical care for adults with cancer and delirium is limited by the low number of studies. A clear distinction between screening tools and diagnostic tools is required to provide an improved understanding of the rates of delirium and its reversibility in this population.

2022 ◽  
Yiwen Qi ◽  
Yue-meng Zhu ◽  
Bin Li

Abstract IntroductionCyclophosphamide (CTX), is reported to be extensively used to establish POI animal model. But the most effective dose has not been systematically concluded yet. This systematic review and network meta-analysis is aimed to compare and rank the different doses of cyclophosphamide in the CTX-induced POI rat model.MethodsRandomized controlled trials of CTX-induced rat POI model were searched in four databases from inception to December, 2021. A network meta-analysis was conducted to analyze the data of included publications. The quality assessment was assessed by SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool. Data were analyzed with STATA 15.0 and Review Manager 5.3.Result205 records were searched and a total of 14 articles met inclusion criteria, Compared by Ovarian morphological changes, estrous cycle and hormone level (FSH, E2, AMH), the loading dose of 200mg/kg CTX with the maintenance dose of 8mg/kg CTX for consecutive 14 days showed the best efficacy in inducing rat POI model.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 354
Pauline Sanchez ◽  
Jean-Guillaume Letarouilly ◽  
Yann Nguyen ◽  
Johanna Sigaux ◽  
Thomas Barnetche ◽  

Background: We aimed to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of probiotics supplementation on symptoms and disease activity in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondylarthritis (SpA), or psoriatic arthritis). Methods: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis from RA and SpA randomized controlled trials were conducted searching for articles in MEDLINE/PubMed and abstracts from recent international rheumatology meetings. The control group was a placebo or another dietary intervention. The risk of bias of the selected studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool and the Jadad scale. Results: The initial search yielded 173 articles. Of these, 13 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, 8 concerning a total of 344 RA patients and 2 concerning a total of 197 SpA patients. Three meta-analyses were also analyzed. Probiotic strains and quantities used were different among trials (5 studies using Lactobacillus sp., 1 trial Bacillus coagulans and the others a mix of different probiotic strains). Time to assess response ranged from 8 weeks to one year. Two studies associated probiotic supplementation with a dietary intervention. Meta-analysis showed a statistically significant decrease of C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration (mean difference (MD)) −3.04 (95% CI −4.47, −1.62) mg/L, p < 0.001; I2 = 20%, n patients = 209) with probiotics in RA. However, after excluding high-risk-of-bias trials of meta-analysis, there was no difference between probiotics and placebo on DAS28 (standard MD −0.54; 95% CI −1.94 to 0.85, p = 0.45, I2 93%, n patients = 143). The two studies on SpA patients showed no efficacy of probiotics. Conclusions: Probiotic supplementation might decrease RA activity with a moderate decrease effect on CRP, but lack of evidence and studies’ heterogeneity do not allow us to propose them to patients with inflammatory arthritis to control their disease. Further RCTs are required in the future to determinate the efficacy of probiotics and the optimal administration design.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shuxian Chen ◽  
Jinglong Yu ◽  
Qiang Zhang ◽  
Jin Zhang ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  

Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Multiple cognitive training appeared to be more effective than working memory training, but the evidence remains insufficient, particularly for the subgroup symptoms and executive function behaviors at home. Further analysis of the impact of factors on the effectiveness would facilitate the development of cognitive training.Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Psyche, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, CNKI, and Weifang Database, and included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of children with ADHD undergoing cognitive intervention. Metaanalysis and univariate metaregression were performed by STATE. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool 2.0 by the two investigators separately. This study was registered with INPLASY, number INPLASY202140065.Results: We included 17 RCTs in the systematic review, with a combined 1,075 participants. For metaanalyses of both subgroups of ADHD symptoms and the executive function behaviors, the test of published bias failed to reach the p &lt; 0.05 level. When all of the training are considered together, cognitive training can improve the presentation of inattention symptoms [SMD = −0.390, 95%CI (−0.675, −0.104)] and executive function behaviors (SMD = −0.319, 95%CI (−0.527, −0.111)]. In the subgroup analysis, the effects of working memory training on both presentations were not statistically significant. In contrast, the multiple cognitive training had significant effects on the presentation of inattention symptoms [SMD = −0.507, 95% CI (−0.722, −0.292)], hyperactivity/impulsivity [SMD = −0.305, 95% CI (−0.518, −0.09)], and the executive function behaviors [SMD = −0.499, 95%CI (−0.707, −0.290)]. In addition, metaregression analysis showed that only training frequency did significantly impact the symptoms of ADHD and the executive function behaviors.Conclusion: This study showed that improvements in symptoms and executive function behaviors were related to the domains of cognitive intervention. The findings suggest that multiple domains of cognitive training and moderate training frequency may have wider clinical benefits. All the above results highlight further research in refining the executive functions of children with ADHD and developing individually tailored cognitive intervention on homes based for children with vulnerable executive functions.Systematic Review Registration: [http://inplasy.com/], [INPLASY202140065].

Hernia ◽  
2022 ◽  
C. R. Kowalik ◽  
S. E. Zwolsman ◽  
A. Malekzadeh ◽  
R. M. H. Roumen ◽  
W. A. R. Zwaans ◽  

Abstract Purpose The surgical implantation of polypropylene (PP) meshes has been linked to the occurrence of systemic autoimmune disorders. We performed a systematic review to determine whether PP implants for inguinal, ventral hernia or pelvic floor surgery are associated with the development of systemic autoimmune syndromes. Methods We searched Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane library, clinicaltrialsregister.eu, clinicaltrails.gov and WHO-ICTR platform. Last search was performed on November 24th 2021. All types of studies reporting systemic inflammatory/autoimmune response in patients having a PP implant for either pelvic floor surgery, ventral or inguinal hernia repair were included. Animal studies, case reports and articles without full text were excluded. We intended to perform a meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed with the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. This study was registered at Prospero (CRD42020220705). Results Of 2137 records identified, 4 were eligible. Two retrospective matched cohort studies focused on mesh surgery for vaginal prolapse or inguinal hernia compared to hysterectomy and colonoscopy, respectively. One cohort study compared the incidence of systemic conditions in women having urinary incontinence surgery with and without mesh. These reports had a low risk of bias. A meta-analysis showed no association when comparing systemic disease between mesh and control groups. Calculated risk ratio was 0.9 (95% CI 0.82–0.98). The fourth study was a case series with a high risk of bias, with a sample of 714 patients with systemic disease, 40 of whom had PP mesh implanted. Conclusion There is no evidence to suggest a causal relationship between being implanted with a PP mesh and the occurrence of autoimmune disorders.

2022 ◽  
pp. BJGP.2021.0537
Loes de Kleijn ◽  
Julie Pedersen ◽  
Hanneke Rijkels-Otters ◽  
Alessandro Chiarotto ◽  
Bart Koes

Background: Long-term opioid treatment in patients with chronic pain is often ineffective and possibly harmful. These patients are often managed by general practitioners, who are calling for a clear overview of effective opioid reduction strategies for primary care. Aim: Evaluate effectiveness of opioid reduction strategies applicable in primary care for patients with chronic pain on long-term opioid treatment. Design: Systematic review of controlled trials and cohort studies. Method Literature search conducted in Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL register of trials, CINAHL, Google Scholar and PsychInfo. Studies evaluating opioid reduction interventions applicable in primary care among adults with long-term opioid treatment for chronic non-cancer pain were included. Risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) 2.0 tool or Risk-of-Bias in Non-randomized studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. Narrative synthesis was performed due to clinical heterogeneity in study designs and types of interventions. Results: Five RCTs and five cohort studies were included (total n= 1717, range 35-985) exploring various opioid reduction strategies. Six studies had high RoB, three moderate RoB, and one low RoB. Three cohort studies investigating a GP supervised opioid taper (critical ROBINS-I), an integrative pain treatment (moderate ROBINS-I) and group medical visits (critical ROBINS-I) demonstrated significant between-group opioid reduction. Conclusion: Results carefully point in the direction of a GP supervised tapering and multidisciplinary group therapeutic sessions to reduce long term opioid treatment. However, due to high risk of bias and small sample sizes, no firm conclusions can be made demonstrating need for more high-quality research.

Joan Puig-Barberà ◽  
Sonia Tamames-Gómez ◽  
Pedro Plans-Rubio ◽  
José María Eiros-Bouza

Avian mutations in vaccine strains obtained from embryonated eggs could impair vaccine effectiveness. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the adjusted relative vaccine effectiveness (arVE) of seed cell-cultured influenza vaccines (ccIV) compared to egg-based influenza vaccines (eIV) in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza related outcomes (IRO) or IRO by clinical codes, in subjects 18 and over. We completed the literature search in January 2021; applied exclusion criteria, evaluated risk of bias of the evidence, and performed heterogeneity, publication bias, qualitative, quantitative and sensitivity analyses. All estimates were computed using a random approach. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, CRD42021228290. We identified 12 publications that reported 26 adjusted arVE results. Five publications reported 13 laboratory confirmed arVE and seven reported 13 code-ascertained arVE. Nine publications with 22 results were at low risk of bias. Heterogeneity was explained by season. We found a significant 11% (8 to 14%) adjusted arVE favoring ccIV in preventing any IRO in the 2017–2018 influenza season. The arVE was 3% (−2% to 7%) in the 2018–2019 influenza season. We found moderate evidence of a significant advantage of the ccIV in preventing IRO, compared to eIV, in a well-matched A(H3N2) predominant season.

Man-Long Chung ◽  
Manuel Widdel ◽  
Julian Kirchhoff ◽  
Julia Sellin ◽  
Mohieddine Jelali ◽  

Pressure injuries remain a serious health complication for patients and nursing staff. Evidence from the past decade has not been analysed through narrative synthesis yet. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL Complete, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and other reviews/sources were screened. Risk of bias was evaluated using a slightly modified QUIPS tool. Risk factor domains were used to assign (non)statistically independent risk factors. Hence, 67 studies with 679,660 patients were included. In low to moderate risk of bias studies, non-blanchable erythema reliably predicted pressure injury stage 2. Factors influencing mechanical boundary conditions, e.g., higher interface pressure or BMI < 18.5, as well as factors affecting interindividual susceptibility (male sex, older age, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, diabetes, hypotension, low physical activity, existing pressure injuries) and treatment-related aspects, such as length of stay in intensive care units, were identified as possible risk factors for pressure injury development. Health care professionals’ evidence-based knowledge of above-mentioned risk factors is vital to ensure optimal prevention and/or treatment. Openly accessible risk factors, e.g., sex, age, BMI, pre-existing diabetes, and non-blanchable erythema, can serve as yellow flags for pressure injury development. Close communication concerning further risk factors, e.g., anemia, hypoalbuminemia, or low physical activity, may optimize prevention and/or treatment. Further high-quality evidence is warranted.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 98
Andréa Oliver Gomes ◽  
Ana Luiza Cabrera Martimbianco ◽  
Aldo Brugnera Junior ◽  
Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini Horliana ◽  
Tamiris da Silva ◽  

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of photobiomodulation as an adjuvant treatment for primary headache. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials was performed. For such, electronic searches were performed in the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, LILACS, PEDro, PsycInfo, Clinicaltrials.gov., and WHO/ICTRP databases, with no restrictions imposed regarding language or year of publication. We included studies that assessed any photobiomodulation therapy as an adjuvant treatment for primary headache compared to sham treatment, no treatment, or another intervention. The methodological assessment was conducted using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. The certainty of the evidence was classified using the GRADE approach. Four randomized clinical trials were included. Most of the included studies had an overall high risk of bias. Compared to sham treatment, photobiomodulation had a clinically important effect on pain in individuals with primary headache. Despite the benefits reported for other outcomes, the estimates were imprecise, and the certainty of the evidence was graded as low. These findings are considered insufficient to support the use of photobiomodulation in the treatment of primary headache. Randomized clinical trials, with higher methodological quality, are needed to enhance the reliability of the estimated effects.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document