reproductive allocation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 472-480
Author(s):  
Sohel Rana ◽  
Razia Sultana Jemim ◽  
Zhi Li ◽  
Xiaodong Geng ◽  
Yanmei Wang ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
John Van der Sman

<p>Parental investment per offspring is a key life history trait in which offspring size and number combinations are balanced in order to maximise fitness. When food is scarce and energy for reproduction is reduced, changes in reproductive allocation can be expected. These adjustments may go on to influence the growth and survival of the next generation. Trade-offs in reproductive allocation in response to food availability occurred differently in each of the three whelks species of this study. However, each species traded numbers of offspring rather than size of offspring when fed low food. Offspring size was more variable among and within capsules than among food treatments. Capsule size was a plastic trait that varied in response to food treatments in each of the species and varied among populations of the same species. Carry-over effects of maternal nutrition influenced juvenile growth in all three species. However, while juvenile growth was greater when adults were fed high food in two of the species, high adult food suppressed the growth of juveniles of the third species. This may be a mechanism to prevent potential negative consequences of rapid growth. There was no evidence of a maternal effect of mortality in any of the three species. Greater variation in hatchling size occurred in the species in which nurse egg feeding occurred. Nurse egg feeding may be a successful strategy in unpredictable environments where optimal offspring size changes from year to year. Regional differences in reproductive allocation between whelks separated by small distances suggest that populations may be isolated from one another and may need to be managed separately for conservation purposes. This study highlights the influence of maternal nutritional effects on life history and the potential impacts that these may have on population and community structure.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
John Van der Sman

<p>Parental investment per offspring is a key life history trait in which offspring size and number combinations are balanced in order to maximise fitness. When food is scarce and energy for reproduction is reduced, changes in reproductive allocation can be expected. These adjustments may go on to influence the growth and survival of the next generation. Trade-offs in reproductive allocation in response to food availability occurred differently in each of the three whelks species of this study. However, each species traded numbers of offspring rather than size of offspring when fed low food. Offspring size was more variable among and within capsules than among food treatments. Capsule size was a plastic trait that varied in response to food treatments in each of the species and varied among populations of the same species. Carry-over effects of maternal nutrition influenced juvenile growth in all three species. However, while juvenile growth was greater when adults were fed high food in two of the species, high adult food suppressed the growth of juveniles of the third species. This may be a mechanism to prevent potential negative consequences of rapid growth. There was no evidence of a maternal effect of mortality in any of the three species. Greater variation in hatchling size occurred in the species in which nurse egg feeding occurred. Nurse egg feeding may be a successful strategy in unpredictable environments where optimal offspring size changes from year to year. Regional differences in reproductive allocation between whelks separated by small distances suggest that populations may be isolated from one another and may need to be managed separately for conservation purposes. This study highlights the influence of maternal nutritional effects on life history and the potential impacts that these may have on population and community structure.</p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wenxia Wang ◽  
Long Ma ◽  
Maaike A. Versteegh ◽  
Hua Wu ◽  
Jan Komdeur

Life-history theory predicts that increased resource allocation in current reproduction comes at the cost of survival and future reproductive fitness. In taxa with biparental care, each parent can adjust investment on current reproduction according to changes in their partner’s effort, but these adjustments may be different for males and females as they may have different reproductive strategies. Numerous theoretical and empirical studies have proposed the mechanism underlying such adjustments. In addition, the value of the brood or litter (brood size) has also been suggested to affect the amount of care through manipulation of brood size. While the two conditions have been studied independently, the impact of their interplay on potential sex-dependent future reproductive performance remains largely unknown. In this study, we simultaneously manipulated both care system (removal of either parent vs. no removal) and brood size in a burying beetle (Nicrophorus vespilloides) to understand their joint effect on reproductive allocation and trade-off between current and future reproduction. Our results show that males compensated for mate loss by significantly increasing the level of care regardless of brood size, while females exhibited such compensation only for small brood size. Additionally, with an increase in allocation to current reproduction, males showed decreased parental investment during the subsequent breeding event as a pair. These findings imply a dual influence of parental care system and brood size on allocation in current reproduction. Moreover, the impact of such adjustments on sex-dependent differences in future reproduction (parental care, larvae number, and average larval mass at dispersal) is also demonstrated. Our findings enhance the understanding of sex roles in parental investment and highlight their importance as drivers of reproductive allocation.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rose A. Marks ◽  
Mpho Mbobe ◽  
Marilize Greyling ◽  
Jennie Pretorius ◽  
D. Nicholas McLetchie ◽  
...  

ABSTRACTResilience to abiotic stress is associated with a suite of functional traits related to defense and longevity. Stress tolerant plants are generally slow growing with extended leave lifespans and reduced allocation to reproduction. Resurrection plants are ideal systems to test for trade-offs associated with stress tolerance due to their extreme resiliency. While, growth defense trade-offs are well-characterized, few studies have tested for natural variation associated with tolerating the harshest environments. Here, we surveyed a suite of functional traits related to stress tolerance, leaf economics, and reproductive allocation in natural populations of the South African resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia. We selected three distinct field sites in South Africa ranging from mesic to xeric. Despite considerable environmental variation across the study area, M. flabellifolia plants were extremely and similarly stress tolerant at all sites. However, we detected notable variation in other life history and morphological traits. Plants in more mesic sites were larger, faster growing, and had more inflorescences. In contrast, plants from the most xeric sites appeared to invest more in persistence and defense, with lower growth rates and less reproductive allocation. Together, this suggests that desiccation tolerance is a binary trait in M. flabellifolia with little natural variation, but that other phenotypes are more labile. The trait syndromes exhibited by plants at the different study sites align with general expectations about growth defense tradeoffs associated with the colonization of extreme environments. We show that plants from the least stressful sites are more reproductive and faster growing, whereas plants from the most stressful sites were slower growing and less reproductive. These findings suggest that M. flabellifolia plants are finely tuned to their environment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Enrique Pérez‐Martínez ◽  
Marcos Méndez

2021 ◽  
Vol 264 ◽  
pp. 108102
Author(s):  
Xiao-Feng Zhang ◽  
Chong-Liang Luo ◽  
Fei Mo ◽  
Hong-Xu Ren ◽  
David Mburu ◽  
...  

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