Ethanol Production
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2022 ◽  
Svetlana Butylina ◽  
Krista Koljonen ◽  
Salla Hiltunen ◽  
Katri Laatikainen

Abstract Valorisation of bio-based materials derived from agricultural and industrial side-streams or waste-streams is a basis of circular economy. However, the success of it depends on the full understanding of materials and finding their optimal way of processing. Barley husk is a side-stream waste material derived from the starch and ethanol production. This study is focused on the processability of the arabinoxylan extracted from barley husk using the electrospinning technique to produce thin xylan-poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers. As a comparison, lignin-free xylan of beech wood was used. The properties of spinning solutions and resulting nanofibrous mats were assessed by using rheological measurements, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. It was found that solubility plays a crucial role in the spinnability of xylan extracts. Decrease in viscosity of arabinoxylan achieved by decreasing its concentration was found to improve the jet stability but at the same time, to reduce the diameter of spun fibre. Hydrophilicity of nanofibrous mats were strongly affected by the type of xylan and solvent used.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Pleasure Chisom Ajayo ◽  
Mei Huang ◽  
Li Zhao ◽  
Dong Tian ◽  
Qin Jiang ◽  

AbstractBy way of broadening the use of diverse sustainable bioethanol feedstocks, the potentials of Paper mulberry fruit juice (PMFJ), as a non-food, sugar-based substrate, were evaluated for fuel ethanol production. The suitability of PMFJ was proven, as maximum ethanol concentration (56.4 g/L) and yield (0.39 g/g) were achieved within half a day of the start of fermentation, corresponding to very high ethanol productivity of 4.7 g/L/hr. The established potentials were further optimally maximized through the response surface methodology (RSM). At the optimal temperature of 30 °C, yeast concentration of 0.55 g/L, and pH of 5, ethanol concentration, productivity, and yield obtained were 73.69 g/L, 4.61 g/L/hr, and 0.48 g/g, respectively. Under these ideal conditions, diverse metal salts were afterward screened for their effects on PMFJ fermentation. Based on a two-level fractional factorial design, nutrient addition had no positive impact on ethanol production. Thus, under the optimal process conditions, and without any external nutrient supplementation, bioethanol from PMFJ compared favorably with typical sugar-based energy crops, highlighting its resourcefulness as a high-value biomass resource for fuel ethanol production. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 1048 ◽  
pp. 451-458
Megawati ◽  
Astrilia Damayanti ◽  
Radenrara Dewi Artanti Putri ◽  
Zuhriyan Ash Shiddieqy Bahlawan ◽  
Astika Arum Dwi Mastuti ◽  

S. platensis is a microalga that contains carbohydrate composition of 30.21% which makes it potential to be used as raw material for ethanol production. Hydrolysis of S. platensis is the first step for converting its carbohydrates into monosaccharides. The second step is fermentation of monosaccharides into ethanol. This research aims to study the effect of temperature and microalgae concentration on the hydrolysis of S. platensis using sulfuric acid as catalyst. This research was conducted using 300 mL sulfuric acid of 2 mol/L, hydrolysis temperatures of 70, 80 and 90 °C, and microalgae concentrations of 20, 26.7, and 33.3 g/L. The effect of temperature is significant in the hydrolysis of S. platensis using sulfuric acid. At microalgae concentration of 20 g/L and hydrolysis time of 35 minutes, the higher the temperatures (70, 80, and 90 °C), the more the glucose yields would be (8.9, 13.5, and 22.9%). This temperature effect got stronger when the hydrolysis was running for 15 minutes. Every time the hydrolysis temperature increased by 10 °C, the glucose yield increased by 13.0% at microalgae concentration of 33.3 g/L. At temperature of 90 °C and time of 35 minutes, the higher the microalgae concentrations (20, 26.7, and 33.3 g/L), the higher the glucose yields would be (25.5, 27.7, and 28.2%). The highest glucose concentration obtained was 2.82 g/L at microalgae concentration of 33.3 g/L, temperature of 90 °C, and time of 35 minutes.

2022 ◽  
Hairui Ji ◽  
Le Wang ◽  
Furong Tao ◽  
Zhipeng Yao ◽  
Xuezhi Li ◽  

Abstract The biomass pretreatment strategies using organic acids facilitate lignin removal and enhance the enzymatic digestion of cellulose. However, lignin always suffers a severe and irreversible condensation. The newly generated C-C bonds dramatically affect its further upgrading. In this study, we used a recyclable hydrotrope (p-Toluenessulfonic acid, p-TsOH) to dissolve lignin under mild condition and stabilized lignin with a quenching agent (formaldehyde, FA) during extraction, achieving both value-added lignin extraction and efficient enzymatic saccharification of cellulose. Approximately 63.7% of lignin was dissolved by 80% (wt. %) p-TsOH with 1.5% FA addition at 80 o C, 30 min. The obtained lignin was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, TGA, 2D HSQC NMR spectroscopy, and GPC. The results indicated that the extracted lignin exhibited excellent properties, such as light color, a low molecular weight (Mw, 5371 g/mol), and a narrow polydispersity (Mw/Mn, 1.63). The pretreated substrate was converted to ethanol via a quasi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (Q-SSF). After fermentation of 60 h, the ethanol concentration reached 38.7±3.3 g/L which was equivalent to a theoretical ethanol yield of 82.9±2.2% based on the glucan content, while the residual glucose concentration was only 4.69±1.4 g/L. In short, this pretreatment strategy protected lignin to form new C-C linkages and improved the enzymatic saccharification of glucan for high-titer ethanol production.

2022 ◽  
Supapid Eknikom ◽  
Ryo Nasuno ◽  
Hiroshi Takagi

Abstract Protein tyrosine nitration (PTN), in which tyrosine (Tyr) residues on proteins are converted into 3-nitrotyrosine (NT), is one of the post-translational modifications mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Many recent studies have reported that PTN contributed to signaling systems by altering the structures and/or functions of proteins. This study aimed to investigate connections between PTN and the inhibitory effect of nitrite-derived RNS on fermentation ability using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results indicated that RNS inhibited the ethanol production of yeast cells with increased intracellular pyruvate content. We also found that RNS decreased the activities of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) as a critical enzyme involved in ethanol production. Our proteomic analysis revealed that the main PDC isozyme Pdc1 underwent the PTN modification at Tyr38, Tyr157, and Tyr344. The biochemical analysis using the recombinant purified Pdc1 enzyme indicated that PTN at Tyr157 or Tyr344 significantly reduced the Pdc1 activity. Interestingly, the substitution of Tyr157 or Tyr344 to phenylalanine, which is no longer converted into NT, recovered the ethanol production under the RNS treatment conditions. These findings suggest that nitrite impairs the fermentation ability of yeast by inhibiting the Pdc1 activity via its PTN modification at Tyr157 and Tyr344 of Pdc1.

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