AIM: To evaluate the macular microvasculature before and after surgery for idiopathic macular hole (MH) and the association of preoperative vascular parameters with postoperative recovery of visual acuity and configuration.
METHODS: Twenty eyes from 20 patients with idiopathic MH were enrolled. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images were obtained before, 2wk, 1, and 3mo after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling. Preoperative foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and perimeter and regional vessel density (VD) in both layers were compared according to the 3-month best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA).
RESULTS: The BCVA improved from 0.98±0.59 (logMAR, Snellen 20/200) preoperatively to 0.30±0.25 (Snellen 20/40) at 3mo postoperatively. The preoperative deep VD was smaller and the FAZ perimeter was larger in the 3-month BCVA<20/32 group (all P<0.05). A significant reduction was observed in FAZ parameters and all VDs 2wk postoperatively. Except for deep perifoveal VD, all VDs recovered only to their preoperative values. The postoperative FAZ parameters were lower during follow-up. Decreases in preoperative deep VDs were correlated with worse postoperative BCVA (Pearson's r=-0.667 and -0.619, respectively). A larger FAZ perimeter (Spearman's r=-0.524) and a lower deep perifoveal VD preoperatively (Pearson's r=0.486) were associated with lower healing stage.
CONCLUSION: The status of the deep vasculature may be an indicator of visual acuity in patients with a closed MH. Except for the deep perifoveal region, VD recovers only to preoperative levels.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of PRGF (plasma rich in growth factors) as an adjuvant to PPV (pars plana vitrectomy) in recurrent, persistent, or poor prognosis MH (macular hole). Patients with MH were treated with PPV plus adjuvant therapy (PRGF membrane (mPRGF) and injectable liquid PRGF (iPRGF)). The anatomical closure of MH and postoperative BCVA (best-corrected visual acuity) were evaluated. Eight eyes (eight patients) were evaluated: myopic MH (MMH, n = 4), idiopathic MH (IMH, n = 2), iatrogenic n = 1, traumatic n = 1. The mean age was 53.1 ± 19.3 years. Hence, 66.7% (n = 4) of patients previously had internal limiting membrane peeling. Five patients (62.5%) received mPRGF and iPRGF, and three patients (37.5%) received iPRGF. Gas tamponade (C3F8) was placed in seven cases and one case of silicone oil. Anatomic closure of MH was achieved in seven eyes (87.5%) and BCVA improved in six cases. In the MMH group, visual acuity improved in two lines of vision. Follow-up time was 27.2 ± 9.0 months. No adverse events or MH recurrences were recorded during follow-up. The use of PRGF as an adjuvant therapy to PPV can be useful to improve anatomical closure and visual acuity in MH surgery.
Purpose: To compare the morphologic characteristics and response to surgery of myopic foveoschisis (MF) with different patterns of vitreomacular interface abnormalities (VMIAs).Methods: In this observational case series, 158 eyes of 121 MF patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM) or vitreomacular traction (VMT) based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) were enrolled. All the eyes were divided into two groups by the pattern of VMIAs: ERM and VMT group. Sixty-one eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and were followed up for at least 6 months. The morphologic characteristics based on OCT and the surgical outcome were evaluated.Outcome: ERM and VMT were found in 47.47 and 52.53% of the cases, respectively. A higher rate of foveal detachment (61.4 vs. 26.7%; p < 0.001) and a higher rate of outer lamellar macular hole (45.8 vs. 21.3%; p = 0.001) were detected in the eyes with VMT compared with those with ERM. In contrast, a lower rate of inner lamellar macular hole (28.9 vs. 60.0%; p = 0.001) was detected in the eyes with VMT compared with those with ERM. The disruption of the external limiting membrane (ELM) was more common in the eyes with VMT than in those with ERM (45.8 vs. 21.3%; p = 0.001). PPV was performed in 61 eyes with a mean follow-up time of 23.55 ± 19.92 months. After surgery, anatomical resolution was achieved in 51 eyes (83.6%). At the final visit, the mean central foveal thickness (CFT) decreased significantly from 547.83 to 118.74 μm, and the mean LogMAR BCVA improved significantly from 0.92 to 0.57. The VMT group was associated with a higher proportion of eyes with visual acuity improvement postoperatively (p = 0.02) and had more a decrease of CFT (P = 0.007) compared with the ERM group.Conclusion: In the eyes with MF, outer retinal lesions occurred more frequently in the eyes with VMT, whereas inner retinal lesions occurred more frequently in the eyes with ERM. Tangential force generated by ERM may act as a causative factor for the inner retinal lesions in MF, and inward-directed force resulting from VMT may act as a causative factor for outer retinal lesions in MF.
Purpose: To investigate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of idiopathic full thickness macular hole (FTMH) without vitreomacular separation (VMS).
Methods: Consecutive cases of idiopathic FTMH at one tertiary center from January 2013 to April 2020 was retrospectively recruited. They were separated into two groups according to the findings in optical coherence tomography (OCT): FTMH with VMS and FTMH without VMS. Ophthalmic examinations and OCT were performed pre and postoperatively. The clinical findings were compared between two groups.
Results: Of the total 124 cases, 15 (12.1 %) were noted as FTMH without VMS with the presence of an attached posterior hyaloid (PH) at macula. The macular hole (MH) size was smaller (276.06 ± 170.10 µm) compared to those with VMS (492.83 ± 209.31 µm) (P < 0.001). The incidence of lamellar hole associated epiretinal proliferation (LHEP) was much higher in this group (13/15, 86.7%), compared to FTMH with VMS (11/109, 10.1%) (P < 0.001). A higher rate of spontaneous closure of MH (13.3%) was also noted in FMTH without VMS (13.3% vs 0.9% in FTMH with VMS, P = 0.040). After operation, the MH closure rate was 93.3%. The postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was not significantly different between two groups (P = 0.098).
Conclusions: A small percentage (12.1% in this series) of idiopathic FTMH had no VMS. The completely attached PH along with the high incidence of LHEP implied a tangential traction in FTMH without VMS. The MH size was usually small, and the postoperative outcomes was similar to those of conventional FTMH with VMS.
To determine whether it would be effective in predicting the results of the postoperative full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) closure when intraretinal cyst (IRC) is present.
Case-control study. Patients with idiopathic FTMH who underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was undertaken in all patients. The new parameter, macular hole closing factor (MHCF) was defined as the base diameter - (arm length + IRC height) by adding IRC to the existing parameter. After surgery, patients were classified and analyzed according to the type of hole closure and the damage of photoreceptor.
Of the 35 patients, 28 (80.00%) had type 1 closure and seven (20.00%) had type 2 closure. There was a significant difference in postoperative BCVA (P < 0.01), base diameter (P = 0.037), arm length (P = 0.045), and IRC height (P = 0.011) between the two groups. In the type 1 closure, they were further divided into two subgroups according to photoreceptor damage, and it was confirmed that there were significant differences in postoperative BCVA (P = 0.045), hole height (P = 0.048), and IRC height (P = 0.046) in the two subgroups. As for the new parameters, a significant difference between the three groups was confirmed (P < 0.01).
IRC may help predict hole closure along with the known horizontal parameters. Therefore, the new parameter containing both two factors can help predict not only hole closure but also damage to photoreceptors that affects postoperative visual prognosis.