clinical findings
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2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (7) ◽  
pp. 1-36
Author(s):  
Yohan Bonescki Gumiel ◽  
Lucas Emanuel Silva e Oliveira ◽  
Vincent Claveau ◽  
Natalia Grabar ◽  
Emerson Cabrera Paraiso ◽  
...  

Unstructured data in electronic health records, represented by clinical texts, are a vast source of healthcare information because they describe a patient's journey, including clinical findings, procedures, and information about the continuity of care. The publication of several studies on temporal relation extraction from clinical texts during the last decade and the realization of multiple shared tasks highlight the importance of this research theme. Therefore, we propose a review of temporal relation extraction in clinical texts. We analyzed 105 articles and verified that relations between events and document creation time, a coarse temporality type, were addressed with traditional machine learning–based models with few recent initiatives to push the state-of-the-art with deep learning–based models. For temporal relations between entities (event and temporal expressions) in the document, factors such as dataset imbalance because of candidate pair generation and task complexity directly affect the system's performance. The state-of-the-art resides on attention-based models, with contextualized word representations being fine-tuned for temporal relation extraction. However, further experiments and advances in the research topic are required until real-time clinical domain applications are released. Furthermore, most of the publications mainly reside on the same dataset, hindering the need for new annotation projects that provide datasets for different medical specialties, clinical text types, and even languages.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Hande Yüceer ◽  
Duygu Gezen Ak ◽  
Gülçin Benbir Şenel ◽  
Erdinç Dursun ◽  
Vuslat Yılmaz ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective: Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder long hypothesised to be an autoimmune disease. Complement-mediated immune mechanisms have not been investigated in detail in narcolepsy. Our aim was to establish the significance of classical pathway activation in narcolepsy. Methods: Sera of 42 narcolepsy patients and 26 healthy controls were screened with ELISA to determine the levels of C1q, C3a, C4d and complement component 4 binding protein (C4BP). A home-made ELISA method was developed to detect antibodies to C4BP-alpha (anti-C4BPA). The correlation between complement levels and clinical findings was examined. Results: C1q levels were significantly higher in narcolepsy patients while C4d and C4BP levels were significantly lower compared to healthy controls. C3a levels were comparable among patients and controls. Eleven narcolepsy patients showed serum anti-C4BPA levels. Total rapid eye movements (REM) time, sleep onset latency, REM sleep latency, sleep activity, percentage of wakefulness after sleep onset and Epworth sleepiness scale scores were correlated with levels of different complement factors. Conclusion: Complement-mediated immune mechanisms might partake in narcolepsy pathogenesis. The precise role of autoantibodies on complement level alterations needs to be investigated. Levels of complement factors and degradation products may potentially be utilised as biomarkers to predict the clinical severity of narcolepsy.


Author(s):  
Gabriel Roman Souza ◽  
Ahmed Abdalla ◽  
Daruka Mahadevan

Abstract Background There is a paucity of literature that comprehensively analyzes previous and current clinical trials targeting neurofibromatoses-related tumors. This article aims to provide readers of drug development efforts targeting these tumors by analyzing translational and clinical findings. Methods This systematic review was written according to the PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria were clinical trials involving patients with neurofibromatosis type 1, type 2, or schwannomatosis that were treated with therapies targeting neurofibromatoses-associated tumors and that were registered on clinicaltrials.gov. In addition, a search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Embase European for articles fully describing these clinical trials. Results A total of 265 clinical trials were registered and screened for eligibility. Ninety-two were included in this systematic review involving approximately 4,636 participants. The number of therapies analyzed was more than 50. Drugs under investigation mainly act on the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways, tumor microenvironment, or aberrantly over-expressed cell surface receptors. Selumetinib was the most effective medication for treating a neurofibromatosis type 1-associated tumor with approximately 68-71% partial response for inoperable or progressive plexiform neurofibromas in children 2 years of age and older and bevacizumab for a neurofibromatosis type 2-related tumor with approximately 36-41% partial response for vestibular schwannomas in patients 12 years of age and older. Conclusions This systematic review presents the results of previous clinical investigations and those under development for neurofibromatoses-associated tumors. Clinicians may use this information to strategize patients to appropriate clinical trials.


Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Author(s):  
Noriko Ishii-Kitano ◽  
Hirayuki Enomoto ◽  
Takashi Nishimura ◽  
Nobuhiro Aizawa ◽  
Yoko Shibata ◽  
...  

Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) of the liver is a rare benign disease. IPTs generally develop as solitary nodules, and cases with multiple lesions are uncommon. We herein report a case of multiple IPTs of the liver that spontaneously regressed. A 70-year-old woman with a 10-year history of primary biliary cholangitis and rheumatoid arthritis visited our hospital to receive a periodic medical examination. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed multiple hypoechoic lesions, with a maximum size of 33 mm, in the liver. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed low-attenuation areas in the liver with mild peripheral enhancement at the arterial and portal phases. We first suspected metastatic liver tumors, but fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography suggested the tumors to be inconsistent with malignant nodules. A percutaneous biopsy showed shedding of liver cells and abundant fibrosis with infiltration of inflammatory cells. Given these findings, we diagnosed the multiple tumors as IPTs. After careful observation for two months, the tumors almost vanished spontaneously. Physicians should avoid a hasty diagnosis of multiple tumors based solely on a few clinical findings, and a careful assessment with various imaging modalities should be conducted.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiao Wang ◽  
Lili Feng ◽  
Haohai Zhang ◽  
Juehua Gao ◽  
Changchuin Mao ◽  
...  

Abstract While mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 were highly efficacious against severe illness and hospitalization, they seem to be less effective in preventing infection months after vaccination, especially with the Delta variant. Breakthrough infections might be due to higher infectivity of the variants, relaxed protective measures by the general public in “COVID-19 fatigue”, and/or waning immunity post-vaccination. Determining the neutralizing antibody levels in a longitudinal manner may address this issue, but technical complexity of classic assays precludes easy detection and quick answers. We developed a lateral flow immunoassay NeutraXpress™ (commercial name of the test kit by Antagen Diagnostics, Inc.), and tested fingertip blood samples of subjects receiving either Moderna or Pfizer vaccines at various time points. With this device, we confirmed the reported clinical findings that mRNA vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies quickly wane after 3–6 months. Thus, using rapid tests to monitor neutralizing antibody status could help identify individuals at risk, prevent breakthrough infections and guide social behavior to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Statement of Significance. Mounting evidence suggests that mRNA vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody titres against SARS-CoV-2 wane in 3–6 months. Quick identification of fully vaccinated persons with high risk of breakthrough infections is key to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The described LFIA device having a control/sample dual-lane design serves this purpose with successful field-test data.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-49
Author(s):  
Bela Shah ◽  
Dhara Gosai ◽  
Sonu Akhani ◽  
Mehul Jadav ◽  
Nirav Rathod

Background: Thousands of people in the world suffer from epilepsy. Inspite of modern advances, it can be controlled in only 80% of treated once. Diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy is still challenged. The present study is attempted to highlight the importance of clinical findings and role of EEG and CT scan and MRI in diagnosis of epilepsy2.Aim:To study the incidence and epidemiological profile, various types of epilepsy and correlation with MRI, CT SCAN, EEG and the effectiveness of various Anti epilepticdrugs in different types of epilepsy. Settings and Design: This is a prospective study carried out at Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad.Methods:All the patients having 2 and/or more unprovoked seizures and already enrolled patients in epilepsy clinic in 1 year duration from January 1,2020 to December 31,2020 were included.Results &Conclusions:Out of 6930 total admissions, 163 patients with epilepsy were enrolled in this study from age group of 1 month to 12 years. Out of 163 patients, 97 were male and 66 were female. Most common age group affected is of 1-5 years. 128 patients (78.62%) were of generalized epilepsy and 35 patients were of partial epilepsy. Most common precipitating factor in epilepsy is inadequate drug dosages (45%). 45 patients (22.7%) have developmental delay. Abnormal EEG findings were present in 123 patients (75.46%). Abnormal MRI findings were present in 37 patients (22.7%). CT scan was done in 56 patients, 20 were abnormal. 107 patients were on monotherapy and 56 patients were on polytherapy. Valproate is most commonly used drug (76.6%).


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 196
Author(s):  
Daniele Zambelli ◽  
Simona Valentini ◽  
Giulia Ballotta ◽  
Marco Cunto

Total or partial vulvo-vaginectomy or vaginectomy are not routinely performed due to the complexity of the techniques and because they are considered radical treatments. Little information can be found in the literature, as the same technique is often named in a different way by different authors, confusing the reader. Therefore, the aim of this essay is to describe five different surgical techniques: partial vaginectomy, complete vaginectomy, partial vestibule-vaginectomy, vulvo-vestibule-vaginectomy and vulvo-vestibulectomy. All techniques are described on the basis of the correct identification of the anatomical nomenclature related to structures involved in surgery, in order to give a more precise and unambiguous description and execution of surgical techniques. Moreover, possible intraoperative and perioperative complications and the authors’ clinical experience in 33 dogs are described. All techniques are well tolerated and could be curative in case of benign or malignant tumours that have not yet metastasized and palliative in other cases. Moreover, they are also useful for therapeutic purposes for chronic vaginitis, severe vaginal cysts or congenital abnormalities. It is our opinion that having five different available techniques to approach vaginal disease is useful to perform the best surgery according to the clinical findings, patient’s characteristics, technique invasiveness and whether it is palliative or not.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Stina Lundberg ◽  
Erika Roman ◽  
Richard L. Bell

Initial contact with alcohol generally occurs during adolescence, and high consumption during this period is associated with increased risk for later alcohol (AUDs) and/or substance use disorders (SUDs). Rodents selectively bred for high or low alcohol consumption are used to identify behavioral characteristics associated with a propensity for high or low voluntary alcohol intake. The multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) is a behavioral test developed to study rodents in a semi-naturalistic setting. Testing in the MCSF creates a comprehensive behavioral profile in a single trial. The current aim was to examine the behavioral profiles of adolescent, bidirectionally selectively bred male and female high alcohol-consuming (P and HAD1/2) and low alcohol-consuming (NP and LAD1/2) rat lines, and outbred Wistar rats. Alcohol-naïve rats were tested once in the MCSF at an age between postnatal days 30 and 35. No common behavioral profile was found for either high or low alcohol-consuming rat lines, and the effect of sex was small. The P/NP and HAD2/LAD2 lines showed within pair-dependent differences, while the HAD1/LAD1 lines were highly similar. The P rats displayed high activity and risk-associated behaviors, whereas HAD2 rats displayed low activity, high shelter-seeking behavior, and open area avoidance. The results from P rats parallel clinical findings that denser family history and risk-taking behavior are strong predictors of future AUDs, often with early onset. Contrarily, the HAD2 behavioral profile was similar to individuals experiencing negative emotionality, which also is associated with a vulnerability to develop, often with a later onset, AUDs and/or SUDs.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1753495X2110671
Author(s):  
Ufuk Demirci ◽  
Esra Altan Erbilen ◽  
Elif Gülsüm Ümit ◽  
Cihan İnan ◽  
N. Cenk Sayın ◽  
...  

Bernard Soulier Syndrome (BSS) is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by macrothrombocytopenia and absence of ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. Clinical findings vary from person to person. Most of the patients are diagnosed with muco-cutaneous bleeding such as purpura, epistaxis and gingival bleeding in early childhood. Few pregnant women with BSS are described in the literature. Management of thrombocytopenia during pregnancy and delivery requires a multidisciplinary approach. The family should be warned about the potentially life-threatening bleeding during pregnancy and the delivery and the decision about mode of delivery should be individualised, involving discussion with patient and multidisciplinary team.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Srikanth Umakanthan ◽  
Saudah Ghany ◽  
La Donna Gay ◽  
Tia Gilkes ◽  
Jamila Freeman ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Cervical cancer, the fourth most frequent cancer in women, is associated with the human papilloma virus (HPV). This study focuses on identifying any risk factors and clinical findings for abnormal cervical cytology and histopathology in relation to the Trinidad and Tobago population. Some risk factors include early age of first coitus, high number of sexual partners, high parity, smoking, and use of certain medications such as oral contraception. This study is aimed to identify the significance of Papanicolaou (pap) smears and to identify the common risk factors that contribute to the development of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. Method: A three-year retrospective, descriptive study of cervical cancer was conducted at the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex to assess the risk factors and clinical findings using cervical cytology and histopathology data of patients with premalignant lesions. The subject population included 215 female patients aged 18 years and older who had the following documented abnormal cervical cytology: (ASCUS), ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, Atypical Glandular cells, HPV, Adenocarcinoma, Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Histopathology records were analysed for thirty-three of these patients. Patients’ information were recorded on data collection sheets adapted from the North Central Regional Health Authority’s cytology laboratory standardised reporting format request form (Appendix I). Results and findings: The data were analysed via Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software edition 23 using frequency tables and descriptive analysis. The sample mean age of the population was 36.7 years, first age of coitus was 18.1 years, number of sexual partners was 3.8 and number of live births was 2. LSIL was the most popular abnormal finding, 32.6 %, followed by HSIL, 28.8% and ASCUS, 27.4%. Most histopathological reports resulted in CIN I and II.Conclusion: The major risk factors observed for cytology abnormalities and premalignant lesions were early age of coitus, high number of sexual partners, and no use of contraception.Patients mostly presented as asymptomatic despite obtaining abnormal cytology results. Hence, regular pap smear screening should continue to be highly encouraged.


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