Visual Acuity
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Rika Tsukii ◽  
Yuka Kasuya ◽  
Shinji Makino

To report a patient with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) occurring soon after the COVID-19 vaccination. A 55-year-old woman presented with a 4-day history of inferior visual field disturbance in the right eye 7 days after receiving the first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Examination revealed a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes. A relative afferent pupillary defect was observed in the right eye. Fundoscopy revealed diffuse optic disc swelling in the right eye, which was prominent above the optic disc. Goldmann visual field testing identified an inferior altitudinal visual field defect with I/2 isopter in the right eye. Although typical complete inferior visual field defect was not detected, a diagnosis of NA-AION was made. The patient was followed without any treatment. During the 2-month follow-up period, the optic disc swelling was gradually improved, and visual acuity was maintained 20/20; however, the optic disc looked diffusely pale in the right eye. Although it is uncertain whether the development of NA-AION after COVID-19 vaccination was consequential or coincidental, we speculate that the close temporal relationship with COVID-19 vaccination suggests the possibility of vasculopathy on the microvascular network of optic nerve head as background of inflammatory or immune-mediated element to the timing of the onset of NA-AION. The aim of this case report is to present this biological plausibility and to elucidate potential ophthalmological complications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1024
Timothy Y. Y. Lai ◽  
Ricky Y. K. Lai

Previous studies based on clinical trial data have demonstrated that greater fluctuations in retinal thickness during the course of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is associated with poorer visual acuity outcomes. However, it was unclear whether similar findings would be observed in real-world clinical settings. This study aimed to evaluate the association between retinal thickness variability and visual outcomes in eyes receiving anti-VEGF therapy for nAMD using pro re nata treatment regimen. A total of 64 eyes which received intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy (bevacizumab, ranibizumab or aflibercept) for the treatment of nAMD were evaluated. Variability in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) central subfield thickness (CST) was calculated from the standard deviation (SD) values of all follow-up visits after three loading doses from month 3 to month 24. Eyes were divided into quartiles based on the OCT CST variability values and the mean best-corrected visual acuity values at 2 years were compared. At baseline, the mean ± SD logMAR visual acuity and CST were 0.59 ± 0.39 and 364 ± 113 µm, respectively. A significant correlation was found between CST variability and visual acuity at 2 years (Spearman’s ρ = 0.54, p < 0.0001), indicating that eyes with lower CST variability had better visual acuity at 2 years. Eyes with the least CST variability were associated with the highest mean visual acuity improvement at 2 years (quartile 1: +9.7 letters, quartile 2: +1.1 letters, quartile 3: −2.5 letters, quartile 4: −9.5 letters; p = 0.018). No significant difference in the number of anti-VEGF injections was found between the four CST variability quartile groups (p = 0.21). These findings showed that eyes undergoing anti-VEGF therapy for nAMD with more stable OCT CST variability during the follow-up period were associated with better visual outcomes. Clinicians should consider adopting treatment strategies to reduce CST variability during the treatment course for nAMD.

2021 ◽  
pp. 848-853
Kaori Ueda ◽  
Takayuki Nagai ◽  
Aya Chubachi ◽  
Yasuyuki Sotani ◽  
Ryuto Nishisho ◽  

We report and compare 2 cases of open globe injury with foveal damage incurred while mowing. Case 1 is a healthy 67-year-old man presenting with an intraocular metallic foreign body and eye pain in his right eye after using a mower. The foreign body perforated the cornea’s inferior area and damaged the foveal centralis, leading to central scotoma and decreased visual acuity. 27G pars plana vitrectomy was performed, and the final corrected decimal visual acuity was 0.1, but the visual field was preserved, except for the central scotoma. Case 2 is a healthy 50-year-old man presenting open globe injury with an intraocular metallic foreign body while using a mower. The foreign body damaged the fovea and triggered extensive retinal detachment. One month after surgery, proliferative vitreoretinopathy occurred, requiring additional surgery. The final corrected decimal visual acuity dropped to 0.05, resulting in an extensive visual field defect. Both cases of eye trauma were caused by mower injury, but the visual function outcomes differed with the size of the foreign body and the injury severity at the time of onset. Mower eye trauma is preventable, and efforts to educate users on safety measures are needed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Fumiki Okamoto ◽  
Mizuki Tomioka ◽  
Tomoya Murakami ◽  
Shohei Morikawa ◽  
Yoshimi Sugiura ◽  

AbstractThe study aimed to evaluate changes in stereopsis and vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) following intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IVR) and investigate the relationship between stereopsis and VR-QOL. This study included 23 treatment-naïve patients with non-ischemic CRVO and 13 age-matched normal controls. Stereopsis, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), VR-QOL, and retinal microstructures were examined pre-treatment and 12 months post-treatment. The Titmus Stereo Test (TST) and TNO stereotest (TNO) were used to evaluate stereopsis. VR-QOL was evaluated using the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25). IVR immediately and significantly improved the TST values, TNO values, composite VFQ-25 score, BCVA, and central foveal thickness in patients with CRVO. The 12-month post-treatment TST and TNO values were significantly worse in the CRVO group compared to those in the normal group. At the baseline, the composite VFQ-25 score significantly correlated only with the TST value. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between the 12-month post-treatment composite VFQ-25 score and the baseline and 12-month post-treatment TNO values. In conclusion, IVR immediately improved stereopsis in CRVO, albeit below normal levels. Stereopsis (not visual acuity) was associated with pre- and post-treatment VR-QOL in patients with CRVO.

Eye ◽  
2021 ◽  
Christina Lim ◽  
Ian De Silva ◽  
Stephenie Tiew

Eye ◽  
2021 ◽  
Supriya Arora ◽  
Dmitrii S. Maltsev ◽  
Niroj Kumar Sahoo ◽  
Deepika C. Parameshwarappa ◽  
Claudio Iovino ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. bjophthalmol-2021-319668
Sainan Xiao ◽  
Wenmin Sun ◽  
Xueshan Xiao ◽  
Shiqiang Li ◽  
Hualei Luo ◽  

Background/aimsX-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), associated with RS1, is the most common type of X-linked retinopathy in children. This study aimed to identify clinical and genetic features of retinoschisis in 120 families with RS1 variants in China.MethodsRS1 variants were collected from our in-house exome data and were predicted by multiple-step bioinformatics analysis. Clinical data of 122 patients from 120 families with potential pathogenic RS1 variants were analysed and summarised, respectively.ResultTotally, 79 hemizygous variants (53 missense, 25 truncation and 1 indel), were detected. All except one (78/79, 98.7%), including 22 novels, were classified as potential pathogenic and detected exclusively in 120 families with retinoschisis. Clinical data demonstrated an average age of presentation at 5 years (1 month–41 years). Macular changes were classified as macular schisis (87.5%), macular atrophy (10.7%), normal (0.9%) and unclassified (0.9%). Patients with macular atrophy had older age but similar visual acuity compared with macular schisis. Peripheral retinal changes included flat retinoschisis (52.4%), bullous retinoschisis (BRS) (10.7%) and normal-like (36.9%) patients. Spontaneous regression was observed in two patients with BRS on follow-up examination. Visual acuity in the peripheral retinoschisis group was worse than that without peripheral retinoschisis.ConclusionAlmost all rare RS1 variants were potential pathogenic. All patients with RS1 pathogenic variants showed detectable characteristics in the macula and/or peripheral retina. Our data on RS1 variants and associated clinical phenotypes may be of value for clinical diagnosis and genetic test of retinoschisis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Jiantao Cui ◽  
Jing Fu ◽  
Lei Li ◽  
Weiwei Chen ◽  
Zhaojun Meng ◽  

Abstract Background Early and effective ocular screening may help to eliminate treatable eye disorders. The Lhasa Childhood Eye Study (LCES) revealed the particular prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in grade one schoolchildren (starting age of 6 years old) in Lhasa. Methods This is a cross-sectional part of school-based cohort study. One thousand nine hundred forty-three children were enrolled (median age, 6.78 years, range, 5.89 to 10.32). Each child underwent general and ocular examinations, including logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity, cycloplegic autorefraction, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy evaluation. Multivariate and correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the association between refractive error with gender and ethnics. Results The prevalence of visual impairment (logMAR visual acuity ≥0.3 in the better-seeing eye) of uncorrected, presenting and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 12.2, 11.7 and 2.7%, respectively. Refractive error presented in 177 (78.0%) out of 227 children with bilateral visual impairment. Myopia (spherical equivalent refractor [SER] ≤ − 0.50 diopter [D] in either eye) was present in 4.7% children when measured after cycloplegic autorefraction. Hyperopia (SER ≥ + 2.00 D) affected 12.1% children. Hyperopia was significantly associated with female gender (P<0.001). Astigmatism (cylinder value ≤ − 0.75 D) was present in 44.8% children. In multivariate regression and correlation analysis, SER had no significant difference between ethnic groups. Conclusion The Lhasa Childhood Eye Study is the first school-based cohort study to reveal the prevalence and pattern of refractive error and visual impairment in Lhasa. Effective strategies such as corrective spectacles should be considered to alleviate treatable visual impairment.

Yujin Gim ◽  
Kyung Eun Han ◽  
Soo Chang Cho

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Pengxiang Zhou ◽  
Siqian Zheng ◽  
Ente Wang ◽  
Peng Men ◽  
Suodi Zhai

Background: Conbercept is a new anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drug. Here, we systematically conducted the efficacy, safety, compliance, and pharmacoeconomic evaluation of intravitreal conbercept (IVC) compared with other treatments in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), diabetic macular edema (DME), or pathologic myopia choroidal neovascularization (pmCNV).Methods: Databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library,, SinoMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang Data were systematically searched from the inception to July 27, 2021. Randomized clinical trials and pharmacoeconomic studies comparing IVC with control groups in adults with nAMD, DME, or pmCNV were reviewed and selected. Meta-analyses were performed using the fixed-effects model when pooled data were homogeneous. Heterogeneous data were analyzed using the random-effects model. Primary outcomes included visual improvement rate, mean change in visual acuity or best corrected visual acuity, and pharmacoeconomic outcomes. Additional outcomes were the mean change in fundus examination values, adverse events (AEs), quality-of-life measures, and number of injections.Results: Among 3,591 screened articles, 22 original studies with 1,910 eyes of patients were finally included. For nAMD and DME, IVC was significantly associated with better visual acuity or best corrected visual acuity improvement and fundus quantitative measures than placebo, laser photocoagulation (LP), or intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVT). However, IVC showed non-inferior efficacy to intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) according to low quality of evidence, and there was lack of trials comparing the priority of IVC to other anti-VEGF regimens. No definitive increased risk of ocular or non-ocular AEs were observed in the study groups. All patients with AEs recovered after symptomatic treatments, and no severe AEs occurred. Patients treated with IVC might have higher quality-of-life scores than those in IVR in nAMD or LP in DME. Additionally, IVC showed cost–utility advantages in nAMD and cost-effectiveness advantages than IVR in pmCNV in China.Conclusion: IVC is well-tolerated and effective for improving vision acuity and quantitative measures in fundus condition in patients with nAMD and DME compared with LP, IVT, and placebo, but gains comparable efficacy to IVR. However, well-designed, large-sample, and long-term evaluation of IVC shall be conducted in additional studies worldwide.

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