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Food Control ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 133 ◽  
pp. 108516
Ximena Velez-Zuazo ◽  
Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto ◽  
Ulises Rosas-Puchuri ◽  
Chiara Guidino ◽  
Andrea Pasara-Polack ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ligia Pereira Castro ◽  
Danilo Batista-Vieira ◽  
Tiago Antonio de Souza ◽  
Ana Rafaela de Souza Timoteo ◽  
Jessica Dayanna Landivar Coutinho ◽  

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare genetic condition in which exposure to sunlight leads to a high tumor incidence due to defective DNA repair machinery. Herein, we investigated seven patients clinically diagnosed with XP living in a small city, Montanhas (Rio Grande do Norte), in the Northeast region of Brazil. We performed high-throughput sequencing and, surprisingly, identified two different mutated genes. Six patients carry a novel homozygote mutation in the POLH/XPV gene, c.672_673insT (p.Leu225Serfs*33), while one patient carries a homozygote mutation in the XPC gene, c.2251-1G>C. This latter mutation was previously described in Southeastern Africa (Comoro Island and Mozambique), Pakistan, and in a high incidence in Brazil. The XP-C patient had the first symptoms before the first year of life with aggressive ophthalmologic tumor progression and a melanoma onset at 7 years of age. The XP-V patients presented a milder phenotype with later onset of the disorder (mean age of 16 years old), and one of the six XP-V patients developed melanoma at 72 years. The photoprotection is minimal among them, mainly for the XP-V patients. The differences in the disease severity between XP-C (more aggressive) and XP-V (milder) patients are obvious and point to the major role of photoprotection in the XPs. We estimate that the incidence of XP patients at Montanhas can be higher, but with no diagnosis, due to poor health assistance. Patients still suffer from the stigmatization of the condition, impairing diagnosis, education for sun protection, and medical care.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mélanie Dechamps ◽  
Julien De Poortere ◽  
Manon Martin ◽  
Laurent Gatto ◽  
Aurélie Daumerie ◽  

Critical COVID-19, like septic shock, is related to a dysregulated systemic inflammatory reaction and is associated with a high incidence of thrombosis and microthrombosis. Improving the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of critical COVID-19 could help in finding new therapeutic targets already explored in the treatment of septic shock. The current study prospectively compared 48 patients with septic shock and 22 patients with critical COVID-19 regarding their clinical characteristics and outcomes, as well as key plasmatic soluble biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, endothelial activation, platelet activation, and NETosis. Forty-eight patients with matched age, gender, and co-morbidities were used as controls. Critical COVID-19 patients exhibited less organ failure but a prolonged ICU length-of-stay due to a prolonged respiratory failure. Inflammatory reaction of critical COVID-19 was distinguished by very high levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and T lymphocyte activation (including IL-7 and CD40L), whereas septic shock displays higher levels of IL-6, IL-8, and a more significant elevation of myeloid response biomarkers, including Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) and IL-1ra. Subsequent inflammation-induced coagulopathy of COVID-19 also differed from sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) and was characterized by a marked increase in soluble tissue factor (TF) but less platelets, antithrombin, and fibrinogen consumption, and less fibrinolysis alteration. In conclusion, COVID-19 inflammation-induced coagulopathy substantially differs from SIC. Modulating TF release and activity should be evaluated in critical COVID-19 patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Ming Cai ◽  
Limin Gao ◽  
Haoxue Li ◽  
Yangbo Ou

Abstract To obtain reliable and accurate experimental data in cascade testing, the influencing factors and the improving method of the flow quality of a highly-loaded compressor cascade under high incidence were investigated through a series of numerical simulations and experiments. The numerical method was validated by experimental data and agreed well at both incidence angles of 0° and 6°. Under the original upper end wall, both experimental and numerical results indicated an unsatisfactory flow quality of the cascade with an obvious nonuniformity of inlet Mach number, and the incidence of the central blade is 3.6° larger than the theoretical value. Using a small curved upper wall can reduce the severe flow separation on the upper wall and achieve a maximum improvement in flow quality under the critical installation angle, where the incidence deviation of the central blade was reduced to 2.1°. Using the combination of adjustable tailboards and a small curved upper end wall can further improve the cascade flow quality. Under the optimal angle of the tailboards, both the inflow uniformity and the outflow periodicity of the three middle blade passages the test requirements, and the incidence deviation of the central blade is reduced to 0.2°.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Paolo Malune ◽  
Giovanna Piras ◽  
Maria Monne ◽  
Maura Fiamma ◽  
Rosanna Asproni ◽  

BackgroundThe SARS-CoV-2 pandemic stimulated an outstanding global sequencing effort, which allowed to monitor viral circulation and evolution. Nuoro province (Sardinia, Italy), characterized by a relatively isolated geographical location and a low population density, was severely hit and displayed a high incidence of infection.MethodsAmplicon approach Next Generation Sequencing and subsequent variant calling in 92 respiratory samples from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients involved in infection clusters from March 2020 to May 2021.ResultsPhylogenetic analysis displayed a coherent distribution of sequences in terms of lineage and temporal evolution of pandemic. Circulating lineage/clade characterization highlighted a growing diversity over time, with an increasingly growing number of mutations and variability of spike and nucleocapsid proteins, while viral RdRp appeared to be more conserved. A total of 384 different mutations were detected, of which 196 were missense and 147 synonymous ones. Mapping mutations along the viral genome showed an irregular distribution in key genes. S gene was the most mutated gene with missense and synonymous variants frequencies of 58.8 and 23.5%, respectively. Mutation rates were similar for the S and N genes with one mutation every ∼788 nucleotides and every ∼712 nucleotides, respectively. Nsp12 gene appeared to be more conserved, with one mutation every ∼1,270 nucleotides. The frequency of variant Y144F in the spike protein deviated from global values with higher prevalence of this mutation in the island.ConclusionThe analysis of the 92 viral genome highlighted evolution over time and identified which mutations are more widespread than others. The high number of sequences also permits the identification of subclusters that are characterized by subtle differences, not only in terms of lineage, which may be used to reconstruct transmission clusters. The disclosure of viral genetic diversity and timely identification of new variants is a useful tool to guide public health intervention measures.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 150
Georgios Mavraganis ◽  
Sofia Ioannou ◽  
Anastasios Kallianos ◽  
Gianna Rentziou ◽  
Georgia Trakada

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been associated with a high incidence of arterial and venous thrombotic complications. However, thromboembolic events in unusual sites such as limb and visceral arterial ischemia are reported rarely in the literature. Herein, we describe a rare case of a patient with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection who experienced severe abdominal pain during the hospitalization and presented simultaneously renal artery, splenic artery and vein as well as aortic thrombi despite prophylactic antithrombotic treatment. Information about his follow-up post discharge is also provided. This case report raises significant clinical implications regarding the correct dose of antithrombotic treatment during the acute phase of the severe COVID-19 infection and highlights the need for incessant vigilance in order to detect thrombosis at unusual sites as a possible diagnosis when severe abdominal pain is present in severe COVID-19 patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 853
Yury Ilinsky ◽  
Mary Demenkova ◽  
Roman Bykov ◽  
Alexander Bugrov

Bacteria of the Wolbachia genus are maternally inherited symbionts of Nematoda and numerous Arthropoda hosts. There are approximately 20 lineages of Wolbachia, which are called supergroups, and they are designated alphabetically. Wolbachia strains of the supergroups A and B are predominant in arthropods, especially in insects, and supergroup F seems to rank third. Host taxa have been studied very unevenly for Wolbachia symbionts, and here, we turn to one of largely unexplored insect families: Acrididae. On the basis of five genes subject to multilocus sequence typing, we investigated the incidence and genetic diversity of Wolbachia in 41 species belonging three subfamilies (Gomphocerinae, Oedipodinae, and Podisminae) collected in Turkey, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Russia, and Japan, making 501 specimens in total. Our results revealed a high incidence and very narrow genetic diversity of Wolbachia. Although only the strains belonging to supergroups A and B are commonly present in present, the Acrididae hosts here proved to be infected with supergroups B and F without A-supergroup variants. The only trace of an A-supergroup lineage was noted in one case of an inter-supergroup recombinant haplotype, where the ftsZ gene came from supergroup A, and the others from supergroup B. Variation in the Wolbachia haplotypes in Acrididae hosts within supergroups B and F was extremely low. A comprehensive genetic analysis of Wolbachia diversity confirmed specific features of the Wolbachia allelic set in Acrididae hosts. This result can help to elucidate the crucial issue of Wolbachia biology: the route(s) and mechanism(s) of Wolbachia horizontal transmission.

2022 ◽  
Arley Calle-Tobón ◽  
Juliana Pérez-Pérez ◽  
Nicolás Forero-Pineda ◽  
Omar Triana Chávez ◽  
Winston Rojas-Montoya ◽  

Aedes spp. comprise the primary group of mosquitoes that transmit arboviruses such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses to humans, and thus these insects pose a significant burden on public health worldwide. Advancements in next-generation sequencing and metagenomics have expanded our knowledge on the richness of RNA viruses harbored by arthropods such as Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus ; increasing evidence suggests that vectorial competence can be modified by the microbiome (comprising both bacteriome and virome) of mosquitoes present in endemic zones. Using an RNA-seq-based metataxonomic approach, this study determined the virome structure of field-caught Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Medellín, Colombia, a municipality with a high incidence of mosquito-transmitted arboviruses. The two species are sympatric, but their core viromes differed considerably in richness, diversity, and abundance; the viromes were dominated by a few viruses. BLAST searches of assembled contigs suggested that at least 17 virus species (16 of which are insect-specific viruses [ISVs]) infect the Ae. aegypti population. Dengue virus 3 was detected in one sample. In Ae. albopictus , up to 11 ISVs and one plant virus were detected. Therefore, the virome composition was species-specific. The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia was identified in all Ae. albopictus samples and in some Ae. aegypti samples collected after 2017. The presence of Wolbachi a sp. in Ae. aegypti was not related to significant changes in the richness, diversity, or abundance of this mosquito’s virome, although it was related to an increase in the abundance of Aedes aegypti To virus 2 (unclassified). The mitochondrial diversity of these mosquitoes suggested that the Ae. aegypti population underwent a change that started in the second half of 2017, which coincides with the release of Wolbachia -infected mosquitoes in Medellín, indicating that the population of w Mel-infected mosquitoes has expanded. However, additional studies are required on the dispersal speed and intergenerational stability of w Mel in Medellín and nearby areas as well as on the introgression of genetic variants in the native mosquito population.

2022 ◽  
Nazanin Farshchian ◽  
Negin Farshchian ◽  
Parisa Bahrami Kamangar

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a prevalent vascular disease characterized by pelvic and limb deep vein thrombophlebitis, and it has a high incidence in traumatic patients. Contrary to older studies, recent research has reported that recanalization in DVT is not a slow process. The present study aimed at the comparative examination of DVT recanalization with Doppler ultrasound in different intervals following treatment with heparin or enoxaparin. This prospective study was conducted on all traumatic patients hospitalized in Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, with the clinical and sonographic diagnosis of DVT in limb veins. Doppler ultrasound was performed two weeks, one month, and three months following treatment in order to examine recanalization. Data were analyzed using statistical tests in SPSS16 at the significance level of <0.05. Based on Doppler ultrasound, a significant difference was found between the degree of recanalization in patients aged <45 years and those aged >45 years, between male and female patients, and between different DVT locations (P<0.05). After three months of treatment with heparin and enoxaparin, the degree of recanalization was increased in DVT. Moreover, it was found that Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool for the diagnosis of recanalization in patients with DVT.

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