AIM: To establish a rabbit model with chronic condition of retinal neovascularization (RNV) induced by intravitreal (IVT) injection of DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DL-AAA), a retinal glial (Müller) cell toxin, extensive characterization of DL-AAA induced angiographic features and the suitability of the model to evaluate anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory therapies for ocular vascular diseases.
METHODS: DL-AAA (80 mmol/L) was administered IVT into both eyes of Dutch Belted rabbit. Post DL-AAA delivery, clinical ophthalmic examinations were performed weekly following modified McDonald-Shadduck Scoring System. Color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) procedures were performed every 2 or 4wk until stable retinal vascular leakage was observed. Once stable retinal leakage (12wk post DL-AAA administration) was established, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (bevacizumab, ranibizumab and aflibercept) and anti-inflammatory (triamcinolone, TAA) drugs were tested for their efficacy after IVT administration. Fluorescein angiograms were scored before and after treatment following a novel grading system, developed for the DL-AAA rabbit model.
RESULTS: Post DL-AAA administration, eyes were presented with moderate to severe retinal/choroidal inflammation which was accompanied by intense vitreous flare and presence of inflammatory cells in the vitreous humor. Retinal hemorrhage was restricted to the tips of neo-retinal vessels. FA revealed maximum retinal vascular leakage at 2wk after DL-AAA injection and then persisted as evidenced by stable mean FA scores in weeks 8 and 12. Retinal vascular angiographic and tomographic features were stable and consistent up to 36mo among two different staggers induced for RNV at two different occasions. Day 7, mean FA scores showed that 1 µg/eye of bevacizumab, ranibizumab, aflibercept and 2 µg/eye of TAA suppress 65%, 90%, 100% and 50% retinal vascular leakage, respectively. Day 30, bevacizumab and TAA continued to show 66% and 44% suppression while ranibizumab effect was becoming less effective (68%). In contrast, aflibercept was still able to fully (100%) suppress vascular leakage on day 30. On day 60, bevacizumab, ranibizumab and TAA showed suppression of 7%, 12%, and 9% retinal vascular leakage, respectively, however, aflibercept continued to be more effective showing 50% suppression of vascular leakage.
CONCLUSION: The DL-AAA rabbit model mimics RNV angiographic features like RNV and chronic retinal leakage. Based on these features the DL-AAA rabbit model provides an invaluable tool that could be used to test the therapeutic efficacy and duration of action of novel anti-angiogenic formulations, alone or in combination with anti-inflammatory compounds.
AIM: To report the etiologies, risk factors, treatments, and outcomes of infectious keratitis (IK) at a major Vietnamese eye hospital.
METHODS: This is a retrospective review of all cases of IK at Vietnam National Eye Hospital (VNEH) in Hanoi, Vietnam. Medical histories, demographics, clinical features, microbiological results, and treatment outcomes were reviewed.
RESULTS: IK was diagnosed in 1974 eyes of 1952 patients, with ocular trauma being the greatest risk factor for IK (34.2%), frequently resulting from an agriculture-related injury (53.3%). The mean duration between symptom onset and presentation to VNEH was 19.3±14.4d, and 98.7% of patients had been treated with topical antibiotic and/or antifungal agents prior to evaluation at VNEH. Based on smear results of 1706 samples, the most common organisms identified were bacteria (n=1107, 64.9%) and fungi (n=1092, 64.0%), with identification of both bacteria and fungi in 614 (36.0%) eyes. Fifty-five of 374 bacterial cultures (14.7%) and 426 of 838 fungal cultures (50.8%) were positive, with the most commonly cultured pathogens being Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Fusarium spp., and Aspergillus spp. Corneal perforation and descemetocele developed in 391 (19.8%) and 93 (4.7%) eyes, respectively. Medical treatment was successful in resolving IK in 50.4% eyes, while 337 (17.1%) eyes underwent penetrating or anterior lamellar keratoplasty. Evisceration was performed in 7.1% of eyes, most commonly in the setting of fungal keratitis.
CONCLUSION: Ocular trauma is a major risk factor for IK in Vietnam, which is diagnosed in almost 400 patients each year at VNEH. Given this, and as approximately one quarter of the eyes that develop IK require corneal transplantation or evisceration, greater emphasis should be placed on the development of prevention and treatment programs for IK in Vietnam.
AIM: To investigate the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in photoinduced injuries in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and how Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) contributes to the increased of RPE cells to photoinduced autophagy.
METHODS: In vitro cultures of human RPE strains (ARPE-19) were prepared and randomly divided into the blank control, model, low-dose LBP, middle-dose LBP, high-dose LBP, and 3-methyladenine (3MA) groups. The viability of the RPE cells and apoptosis levels in each group were tested through cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) method with a flow cytometer (Annexin V/PI double staining technique). The expression levels of LC3II, LC3I, and P62 proteins were detected with the immunofluorescence method. The expression levels of beclin1, LC3, P62, PI3K, P-mTOR, mTOR, P-Akt, and Akt proteins were tested through Western blot.
RESULTS: LBP considerably strengthens cell viability and inhibits the apoptosis of RPE cells after photoinduction. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway is activated because of the upregulation of the phosphorylation levels of Akt and mTOR proteins, and thus autophagy is inhibited.
CONCLUSION: LBP can inhibit the excessive autophagy in RPE cells by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways and thereby protect RPE cells from photoinduced injuries.
AIM: To identify and characterize the 100 most influential articles in the field of myopia over the last decades.
METHODS: Articles on myopia published between January 1975 and March 2020 were searched through the Web of Science Core Collection database. Two independent authors reviewed and determined the 100 most cited articles. The characteristics of each eligible article were recorded, including authors, institutions, countries, journals, publication date, total citations (TCs), annual citations (ACs), research focus and article type.
RESULTS: The top 100 most influential articles were published between 1983 and 2016, with 1999 as the most prolific year. The mean number of TCs was 288 (range: 193-537) and the mean number of ACs was 19 (range: 7-109). Treatment and epidemiology of myopia were the most important research focus. These articles were published in 21 journals led by Ophthalmology (29%) followed by Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (23%). The number of ACs for articles published in the last ten years was significantly higher than that for the other most-cited articles (44 vs 16, Mann-Whitney U test P<0.01). There is no difference in the number of TCs between original articles and review articles, while the number of ACs for review articles was significantly higher than that for original articles (22 vs 17, Mann-Whitney U test P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: This bibliometric analysis can provide us with concise information about the development trend of research in the field of myopia in the past few decades, and provide an important reference for researchers to guide future research.
AIM: To evaluate the incidence of increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous changes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in comparison with systemic steroids and immunosuppressive treatment.
METHODS: Sixty-two women with SLE were divided into two groups: treated (n=47, 94 eyes) and not treated (n=15, 30 eyes) with systemic glucocorticosteroids (GC; GC-free). Twenty-one individuals in GC group were treated with immunosuppressive agents (immunomodulating and biologic). The visual acuity and IOP with ocular pulsatile amplitude (OPA) measurements, as well as scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) with nerve fiber index (NFI) measurement, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the optic disk with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis and the macular region with ganglion cell analysis (GCA) were performed.
RESULTS: Mean IOP values in group with combined GC and immunosuppressive therapy was 15.8±2.56 mm Hg and was significantly lower than in individuals with exclusive GC treatment (17.63±4.38 mm Hg, P=0.043). Contrary, no differences in mean IOP values between GC-free group and individuals treated with combined GC and immunosuppressive therapy were detected (P=0.563). Similarly, mean IOP in GC was 17.14±3.94 mm Hg and in GC-free patients was equal to 16.67±3.45 mm Hg (P=0.671). According to treatment regimen no statistical differences in optic disk SD-OCT for RNFL thickness, RNFL symmetry, cupping volume and the C/D ratio were observed. Similarly, no statistical differences for the mean and minimal ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness measured in macular SD-OCT or NFI in GDx were detected.
CONCLUSION: Combined immunosuppressive and systemic GC therapy in SLE patients may lower the risk of iatrogenic ocular hypertension. No relationship between treatment regimen and glaucomatous damage of optic nerve fibers in analyzed groups with SLE is detected.
AIM: To investigate the effect of nano-selenium loaded with different concentrations of lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP-SeNPs) on the proliferation of human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) from UV irradiation.
METHODS: LBP-SeNPs were prepared and their particle size was detected. HLECs (SRA01/04) were irradiated with UVB for different time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60min) to construct a damaged model, the survival rate of cells was determined by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The 4',6-Diamidine-2'-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining was used to observe the status of cell nucleus and drug entering cytoplasm through cell membrane in SRA01/04 cells after adding LBP-SENPS loaded with coumarin fluorescence agent 24h under fluorescence microscope. SRA01/04 normal and UVB-damaged cells were treated with different amounts of LBP-SeNPs at different concentrations, cells proliferation were observed.
RESULTS: The particle size of LBP-SeNPs was stable in the range of 150-200 nm. The survival rate changes with time after UVB irradiation were statistically significant. The 10min of UVB exposure as the time was chosen to construct the cell damage model. With DAPI staining, LBP-SeNPs were observed to enter the cytoplasm through the cell membrane under fluorescence inverted microscope. Cytotoxicity of SRA01/04 at different concentrations of LBP-SeNPs were measured. Cell survival rate was statistically different compared with the control group. The higher the loading concentration of LBP in nano-Se drugs was, the higher the cell proliferation rate was (P<0.05). The lower the concentration of LBP-SeNPs, the higher the cell proliferation rate, showing a negative growth trend (P<0.05). The group with the highest average cell proliferation rate was 0.5 µmol/L 2.0 mg/mL LBP-SeNPs (128.80%). When the 2.0 mg/mL LBP-SeNPs group was selected for cell photography, the cell density was higher at 0.5 μmol/L. With the increase of concentration, SRA01/04 cells appeared more cytoplasm dehydration, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies, and cell density decreased.
CONCLUSION: LBP-SeNPs has moderate particle size and good stability. LBP-SeNPs can protect HLECs (SRA01/04) from UVB-induced damage, and the cell proliferation rate is further increased with increasing the amount of loaded LBP and decreasing nano-selenium concentration.
AIM: To assess the effectiveness of core vitrectomy-phacoemulsification-intraocular lens (IOL) implantation-capsulo-hyaloidotomy in treating phakic eye at least 1mo after the onset of malignant glaucoma.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis were performed on malignant glaucoma patients treated in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center between 2016 and 2018. Demographic and clinical data were described. The preoperative and postoperative visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), number of IOP-lowering medications used, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) of the case series were compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
RESULTS: Thirteen phakic eyes with long time intervals between onset and surgery were identified in this case series. Core vitrectomy-phacoemulsification-IOL implantation-capsulo-hyaloidotomy reduced the IOP (P=0.046) and the number of IOP-lowering medications used (P=0.004), deepened the ACD (P=0.005). Complete success was achieved in 38.5% of the eyes, and anatomical success was achieved in 100% of the eyes without any recurrence. The only postoperative complication observed is corneal endothelial decompensation. It occurred in two cases.
CONCLUSION: Core vitrectomy-phacoemulsification-IOL implantation-capsulo-hyaloidotomy is safe and effective for treatment of long onset phakic malignant glaucoma.