adjuvant therapy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 103303
Gaelen B. Stanford-Moore ◽  
Ana Marija Sola ◽  
Jason Chan ◽  
Ivan El-Sayed ◽  
Jonathan George ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 273-279
Deandra Maharani Widiatmaja ◽  
Alyaa Ulaa Dhiya Ul Haq ◽  
Dinda Dwi Purwati ◽  
Arifa Mustika

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence keeps increasing worldwide and being particular concern due to its morbidity and mortality. However, current CKD therapy are known to be economically costly and not necessarily provide better outcomes. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is one of the substances that widely studied as perspective therapeutic agents of CKD due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and enhancing mitochondrial function ability. However, the use of EGCG is limited to low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetic profile. Encapsulation of EGCG with PLGA is expected to increase the efficacy of EGCG especially for its use as the kidney protective agent and optimize therapy of CKD. Thus, this study aims to analyze the potency of PLGA-encapsulated EGCG as the adjuvant therapy for CKD. This study was a narrative review summarizes studies related to current adjuvant therapy of CKD. EGCG has beneficial effects in reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines among chronic kidney disease. EGCG also can increase scavenging of free radicals to decrease reactive oxygen species. EGCG is known to enhance mitochondrial function and increase mitochondrial protection to prevent apoptosis in various kidney diseases. Combination of PLGA encapsulation with EGCG has a beneficial effect in improving the delivery, bioavailability, stability, and the pharmacokinetic profile of EGCG. PLGA-encapsulated EGCG also provides a better therapeutic effect on preventing and decreasing progression of kidney damage. Finally, this study concluded that combination of PLGA-encapsulated EGCG has a potency as the adjuvant therapy of CKD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 280-284
Putri Aliya Ahadini ◽  
Muhamad Bagus Wira Utama ◽  
Adhyatma Ismu Reihan ◽  
Reny I’tishom

Mental disorders are one of the health disorders that contribute to high rates of disability and mortality worldwide. The current therapeutic modalities used to treat mental disorders are medical and psychological approaches, but it becomes problematic in some conditions, such as drug-resistant mental disorders. Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC) technology can be used as an alternative to overcome this problem. This technology uses radio waves which are guaranteed to be non-invasive and do not cause side effects. This technology enables neuromodulation effects by maximizing cell polarity and optimizing endogenous bioelectric activity. Of course, the REAC's mechanism as a neuromodulator and being a non-invasive technology is safe to use. It allows REAC to be used as an adjuvant therapy to reduce symptoms of several mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, phobias, and stress.

Immunotherapy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Giacomo Nuvola ◽  
Alessandro Rizzo ◽  
Veronica Mollica ◽  
Francesco Massari

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 57-69
Ronald M. Sánchez-Ávila ◽  
Carlos A. Robayo-Esper ◽  
Eva Villota-Deleu ◽  
Álvaro Fernández-Vega Sanz ◽  
Álvaro Fernández-Vega González ◽  

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of PRGF (plasma rich in growth factors) as an adjuvant to PPV (pars plana vitrectomy) in recurrent, persistent, or poor prognosis MH (macular hole). Patients with MH were treated with PPV plus adjuvant therapy (PRGF membrane (mPRGF) and injectable liquid PRGF (iPRGF)). The anatomical closure of MH and postoperative BCVA (best-corrected visual acuity) were evaluated. Eight eyes (eight patients) were evaluated: myopic MH (MMH, n = 4), idiopathic MH (IMH, n = 2), iatrogenic n = 1, traumatic n = 1. The mean age was 53.1 ± 19.3 years. Hence, 66.7% (n = 4) of patients previously had internal limiting membrane peeling. Five patients (62.5%) received mPRGF and iPRGF, and three patients (37.5%) received iPRGF. Gas tamponade (C3F8) was placed in seven cases and one case of silicone oil. Anatomic closure of MH was achieved in seven eyes (87.5%) and BCVA improved in six cases. In the MMH group, visual acuity improved in two lines of vision. Follow-up time was 27.2 ± 9.0 months. No adverse events or MH recurrences were recorded during follow-up. The use of PRGF as an adjuvant therapy to PPV can be useful to improve anatomical closure and visual acuity in MH surgery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-28
Zhou Lin ◽  
Junju Zheng ◽  
Mangmang Chen ◽  
Jiaru Chen ◽  
Jiejun Lin

Objective. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods. An electronic search was conducted in eight databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese VIP Database, and Wanfang Database) from inception until December 2019. The risk of bias assessment of the included RCTs was evaluated by Cochrane collaboration’s tool. The inclusion criteria were RCTs that investigated the efficacy and safety of CHM in the treatment of KOA, with no restrictions on publication status or language. The exclusion criteria included nonrandomized or quasi-RCTs, no clear KOA diagnostic approach, combined Chinese medicinal herbs with other traditional Chinese medicine treatment modalities, and published using repeated data and missing data. We computed the relative risk (RR) and the standard mean difference (SMD) for dichotomous outcomes and continuous outcomes, respectively. When heterogeneity was detected or there was significant statistical heterogeneity ( P < 0.05 or I 2 > 50 % ), a random-effects model was employed, followed by further subgroup analysis and metaregression estimations to ascertain the origins of heterogeneity. Otherwise, we used a fixed-effects model ( P ≥ 0.05 or I 2 ≤ 50 % ). The primary outcome measures were visual analog score (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Lysholm score, and Lequesne index. Secondary outcome measures were the total clinical effective rate and adverse events. The meta-analysis was performed using the Stata 14.0 software. Results. A total of 56 RCTs comprising 5350 patients met the inclusion criteria. This meta-analysis showed that application of CHM as adjuvant therapy or monotherapy for KOA can significantly decrease VAS, WOMAC, and the Lequesne index and improve the Lysholm score as well as the total effective rate. In addition, this treatment has fewer adverse effects, suggesting that CHM is generally safe and well tolerated among patients with KOA. Conclusion. Our study offers supportive evidence that CHM, either adjuvant therapy or monotherapy, reduces the VAS, WOMAC, and Lequesne index and improves the Lysholm score and overall effective rate in patients with KOA. Additionally, CHM was well tolerated and safe in KOA patients. We found frequently used CHMs that might contribute to the formulation of a herbal formula that could be considered for further clinical use. However, given the heterogeneity and limited sample size in this study, larger multicenter and high-quality RCTs are needed to validate the benefits of CHM in the treatment of KOA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 000 (000) ◽  
pp. 000-000
Xing Chen ◽  
Jinpeng Du ◽  
Jiwei Huang ◽  
Yong Zeng ◽  
Kefei Yuan

Tatiana Von Hertwig Fernandes de Oliveira ◽  
Jennyfer Paulla Galdino Chaves ◽  
Thiago Teixeira Silva ◽  
Alexandre Novicki Francisco ◽  
Sérgio Leandro Stebel

Abstract Introduction Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjuvant therapy used in the treatment of patients with refractory epilepsy who are not candidates for resective surgery or who have limited results after surgical procedures. Currently, there is enough evidence to support its use in patients with various types of epilepsy. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the possibility of optimizing therapy by reducing the consumption of the system's battery. Methods The prospective and double-blind analysis consisted in the evaluation of 6 patients submitted to VNS implantation for 3 months, followed by adjustment of the stimulation settings and continuity of follow-up for another month. The standard protocol was replaced by another with a frequency value of 20 Hz instead of 30 Hz to increase battery life. The safety of this procedure was evaluated through the assessment of two main variables: seizures and side effects. Results The stimulation at 20 Hz showed 68% reduction in the incidence of seizures (p = 0.054) as well as low incidence of side effects. Conclusion The present study suggests that the reduction of the stimulation frequency from 30 to 20 Hz is a safe procedure, and it does not compromise the effectiveness of therapy.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 239
Kalle E. Mattila ◽  
Paula Vainio ◽  
Panu M. Jaakkola

Approximately 20% of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) present with primarily metastatic disease and over 30% of patients with localized RCC will develop distant metastases later, after complete resection of the primary tumor. Accurate postoperative prognostic models are essential for designing personalized surveillance programs, as well as for designing adjuvant therapy and trials. Several clinical and histopathological prognostic factors have been identified and adopted into prognostic algorithms to assess the individual risk for disease recurrence after radical or partial nephrectomy. However, the prediction accuracy of current prognostic models has been studied in retrospective patient cohorts and the optimal set of prognostic features remains unclear. In addition to traditional histopathological prognostic factors, novel biomarkers, such as gene expression profiles and circulating tumor DNA, are extensively studied to supplement existing prognostic algorithms to improve their prediction accuracy. Here, we aim to give an overview of existing prognostic features and prediction models for localized postoperative clear cell RCC and discuss their role in the adjuvant therapy trials. The results of ongoing placebo-controlled adjuvant therapy trials may elucidate prognostic factors and biomarkers that help to define patients at high risk for disease recurrence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Hui Tian ◽  
Xuan Wang ◽  
Bin Lian ◽  
Lu Si ◽  
Min Gao ◽  

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of radical resection compared with non-radical resection for vaginal or cervical melanoma.Methods: We retrospectively analysed the clinical data of post-operative patients with primary lower genital tract melanoma hospitalised at Peking University Cancer Hospital between Jan 2014 and Dec 2020. The study endpoints were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Kaplan–Meier method-plotted survival curves and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify the factors associated with RFS and OS, and to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).Results: A total of 80 patients were included. Thirty-one patients had received non-radical resection, and 49 patients had received radical resection. The median patient age was 55.5 (IQR 45.3–60.0) years. Sixty-two (77.5%) patients had vaginal melanoma. Sixty-four patients (80.0%) had received post-operative adjuvant therapy. The median follow-up time was 36.0 months (95% CI 10.1–62.1 months). Sixty-four patients developed recurrence, and 44 patients died. The median RFS (mRFS) was 6.0 months (95% CI 3.4–8.6 m), and the RFS for the radical resection group was longer than that for the non-radical resection group (9.5 vs. 5.3 m), with no significant difference (P &gt; 0.05). The median OS (mOS) was 25.9 months (95% CI 14.4–37.4 m). The mOS was 24.6 months (95% CI 10.3–38.9 m) and 25.9 months (95% CI 10.9–40.9 m) in the non-radical resection group and the radical resection group, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that surgical approach, infiltration depth of the tumour, lymph node metastasis, and post-operative adjuvant therapy were independent risk factors for RFS and that post-operative adjuvant therapy was an independent risk factor for OS.Conclusion: By performing multivariate analysis, which corrected for potential confounding factors, we identified surgical procedures that were associated with RFS, and we found that RFS and OS in patients with vaginal melanoma and cervical melanoma benefitted from post-operative adjuvant therapy.

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