Adjuvant Therapy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 280-284
Putri Aliya Ahadini ◽  
Muhamad Bagus Wira Utama ◽  
Adhyatma Ismu Reihan ◽  
Reny I’tishom

Mental disorders are one of the health disorders that contribute to high rates of disability and mortality worldwide. The current therapeutic modalities used to treat mental disorders are medical and psychological approaches, but it becomes problematic in some conditions, such as drug-resistant mental disorders. Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC) technology can be used as an alternative to overcome this problem. This technology uses radio waves which are guaranteed to be non-invasive and do not cause side effects. This technology enables neuromodulation effects by maximizing cell polarity and optimizing endogenous bioelectric activity. Of course, the REAC's mechanism as a neuromodulator and being a non-invasive technology is safe to use. It allows REAC to be used as an adjuvant therapy to reduce symptoms of several mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, phobias, and stress.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 273-279
Deandra Maharani Widiatmaja ◽  
Alyaa Ulaa Dhiya Ul Haq ◽  
Dinda Dwi Purwati ◽  
Arifa Mustika

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence keeps increasing worldwide and being particular concern due to its morbidity and mortality. However, current CKD therapy are known to be economically costly and not necessarily provide better outcomes. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is one of the substances that widely studied as perspective therapeutic agents of CKD due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and enhancing mitochondrial function ability. However, the use of EGCG is limited to low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetic profile. Encapsulation of EGCG with PLGA is expected to increase the efficacy of EGCG especially for its use as the kidney protective agent and optimize therapy of CKD. Thus, this study aims to analyze the potency of PLGA-encapsulated EGCG as the adjuvant therapy for CKD. This study was a narrative review summarizes studies related to current adjuvant therapy of CKD. EGCG has beneficial effects in reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines among chronic kidney disease. EGCG also can increase scavenging of free radicals to decrease reactive oxygen species. EGCG is known to enhance mitochondrial function and increase mitochondrial protection to prevent apoptosis in various kidney diseases. Combination of PLGA encapsulation with EGCG has a beneficial effect in improving the delivery, bioavailability, stability, and the pharmacokinetic profile of EGCG. PLGA-encapsulated EGCG also provides a better therapeutic effect on preventing and decreasing progression of kidney damage. Finally, this study concluded that combination of PLGA-encapsulated EGCG has a potency as the adjuvant therapy of CKD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Wei Liu ◽  
Tingting Zhou ◽  
Jinqiu Tian ◽  
Xiaofang Yu ◽  
Chuantao Ren ◽  

ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), GDNF family receptor alpha 1 (GFRα1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) on colonic motility in a mouse model of intestinal neuronal dysplasia by intervention with Bifidobacterium and to explore the influence of Bifidobacterium on enteric glial cells (EGCs).MethodsWestern blotting and qRT-PCR were employed to detect the expression of GFRα1 and GFAP in colonic tissues of mice with or without Tlx2 mutations, and ELISA was used to detect the expression of GDNF in serum. IHC was used to detect the appearance of the ganglion cells. Subsequently, Tlx2 homozygous mutant (Tlx2−/−) mice were treated with Bifidobacterium. Colonic motility was measured before and after intervention by measuring the glass bead expelling time. The variations in abdominal circumference and GDNF, GFRα1, and GFAP expression were measured. In addition, 16SrRNA gene sequencing was performed to detect the abundance of the intestinal microbiota.ResultsThe mRNA and protein expression of GFRα1 and GFAP was decreased in the colonic tissues of Tlx2−/− mice and GDNF expression was decreased in serum compared with Tlx2+/− and WT mice. After confirming the colonization of Bifidobacterium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the expelling time and abdominal distension were ameliorated, and the expression of GFAP, GDNF, and GFRα1 was increased.ConclusionsThe expression of GDNF, GFRα1, and GFAP is associated with colonic motility. The altered expression of EGC-related factors suggested that Bifidobacterium may be involved in the EGC activation process. The amelioration of IND symptoms after intervention with Bifidobacterium prompted the elicitation of adjuvant therapy.

2022 ◽  
Thiago Falcão Hora ◽  
Agostinho de Alencar Guerra ◽  
Gerson Otmar Kuhne ◽  
Vinícius de Sousa Alvarenga ◽  
Sabrina Fonseca Oliveira ◽  

Abstract Purpose: Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, in recent decades, BTX has become an important adjunct treatment to neurological or rehabilitative strategies.We aimed to describe the clinical aspects of patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital who were treated with BTX for spasticity and dystonia. Methods: This was a historical cohort; data was collected from the electronic charts of all outpatients treated with BTX between 2014 and 2016 in the spasticity and movement disorders service of a quaternary, open access, rehabilitation hospital. The inclusion criteria were limb spasticity due to traumatic brain injury (TBI), and stroke; limb tremor; cervical dystonia; and generalized limb dystonia from any cause in addition to pain that limits rehabilitation. We used relatively lower doses than those generally published in the literature. Therapeutic response was determined by the Goal attainment scale (GAS), pain (graded by visual analogue scale ), independence for daily living activities, target joint range of motion (pre- and post-application), and gait analysis (only for walkers patients). Results: A total of 63 patients were enrolled in this study with a mean follow-up of 2 years. There was significant improvement in joint restriction ) with 66.7% of patients reporting improvement in the GAS scale, best improvement occurred with ortheses and limb adjustments. Conclusions: Most patients have improved functionality on the GAS scale after treatment with BTX, which is used as an adjunct therapy in subjects already in rehabilitation programs. The main rehabilitation objectives with the GAS scale were achieved in most patients.

Immunotherapy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Giacomo Nuvola ◽  
Alessandro Rizzo ◽  
Veronica Mollica ◽  
Francesco Massari

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 57-69
Ronald M. Sánchez-Ávila ◽  
Carlos A. Robayo-Esper ◽  
Eva Villota-Deleu ◽  
Álvaro Fernández-Vega Sanz ◽  
Álvaro Fernández-Vega González ◽  

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of PRGF (plasma rich in growth factors) as an adjuvant to PPV (pars plana vitrectomy) in recurrent, persistent, or poor prognosis MH (macular hole). Patients with MH were treated with PPV plus adjuvant therapy (PRGF membrane (mPRGF) and injectable liquid PRGF (iPRGF)). The anatomical closure of MH and postoperative BCVA (best-corrected visual acuity) were evaluated. Eight eyes (eight patients) were evaluated: myopic MH (MMH, n = 4), idiopathic MH (IMH, n = 2), iatrogenic n = 1, traumatic n = 1. The mean age was 53.1 ± 19.3 years. Hence, 66.7% (n = 4) of patients previously had internal limiting membrane peeling. Five patients (62.5%) received mPRGF and iPRGF, and three patients (37.5%) received iPRGF. Gas tamponade (C3F8) was placed in seven cases and one case of silicone oil. Anatomic closure of MH was achieved in seven eyes (87.5%) and BCVA improved in six cases. In the MMH group, visual acuity improved in two lines of vision. Follow-up time was 27.2 ± 9.0 months. No adverse events or MH recurrences were recorded during follow-up. The use of PRGF as an adjuvant therapy to PPV can be useful to improve anatomical closure and visual acuity in MH surgery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e40311125175
João da Cruz-Filho ◽  
Leandro Branco Rocha ◽  
Alessandra de Santana ◽  
Gabriel de Araújo Lobão

Vitamin D is traditionally known for its role in regulating calcium homeostasis and consequently maintaining bone integrity and health. However, more recently, it has been observed that it has a series of previously unknown non-canonical functions, such as maintenance of immunity and intestinal mucosa integrity. Furthermore, it has been shown to be associated with the progression or perpetuation of several diseases since its serum concentration is reduced during the course of the conditions. Therefore, we sought to investigate, through a literature review, the usefulness of serum vitamin D measurement in dogs and cats as a prognostic factor for different diseases, as well as the possible therapeutic effect of supplementing this vitamin in the correction of those illnesses. Vitamin D is in fact deficient in gastroenteric diseases, such as protein-losing enteropathy, infectious diseases, such as canine leishmaniasis, heart and kidney disease, among others. However, it is necessary to understand more properly about the physiological role of vitamin D in health, so that we can also understand it in disease. There are also too few data reports supporting supplementing this vitamin as main or adjuvant therapy in the treatment of any disease, but evidence points to the usefulness of vitamin D serum measurement as a prognostic predictor for dogs and cats.

2022 ◽  
pp. 6-10
V. E. Medvedev

Adequate SSRI monotherapy does not produce a sufficient clinical effect in some patients, and about 30% of patients do not respond to therapy at all. Favorable experience of combined prescription of SSRIs with various nootropic (neuroprotective) agents has been described in the literature.The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of hopantenic acid as an adjuvant therapy for depression. We obtained significant data that inclusion of hopantenic acid at a dose of 2000 mg per day in a 12-week complex antidepressant therapy with paroxetine (20 mg per day) statistically significantly reduces the severity of depression symptoms. The drug's effect is achieved by improving patients' cognitive functions, reducing anxiety symptoms and side effects of SSRIs. Improved efficacy and tolerability of antidepressant therapy with hopantenic acid in the long term will allow to achieve more significant improvement in the quality of life of patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-28
Zhou Lin ◽  
Junju Zheng ◽  
Mangmang Chen ◽  
Jiaru Chen ◽  
Jiejun Lin

Objective. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods. An electronic search was conducted in eight databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese VIP Database, and Wanfang Database) from inception until December 2019. The risk of bias assessment of the included RCTs was evaluated by Cochrane collaboration’s tool. The inclusion criteria were RCTs that investigated the efficacy and safety of CHM in the treatment of KOA, with no restrictions on publication status or language. The exclusion criteria included nonrandomized or quasi-RCTs, no clear KOA diagnostic approach, combined Chinese medicinal herbs with other traditional Chinese medicine treatment modalities, and published using repeated data and missing data. We computed the relative risk (RR) and the standard mean difference (SMD) for dichotomous outcomes and continuous outcomes, respectively. When heterogeneity was detected or there was significant statistical heterogeneity ( P < 0.05 or I 2 > 50 % ), a random-effects model was employed, followed by further subgroup analysis and metaregression estimations to ascertain the origins of heterogeneity. Otherwise, we used a fixed-effects model ( P ≥ 0.05 or I 2 ≤ 50 % ). The primary outcome measures were visual analog score (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Lysholm score, and Lequesne index. Secondary outcome measures were the total clinical effective rate and adverse events. The meta-analysis was performed using the Stata 14.0 software. Results. A total of 56 RCTs comprising 5350 patients met the inclusion criteria. This meta-analysis showed that application of CHM as adjuvant therapy or monotherapy for KOA can significantly decrease VAS, WOMAC, and the Lequesne index and improve the Lysholm score as well as the total effective rate. In addition, this treatment has fewer adverse effects, suggesting that CHM is generally safe and well tolerated among patients with KOA. Conclusion. Our study offers supportive evidence that CHM, either adjuvant therapy or monotherapy, reduces the VAS, WOMAC, and Lequesne index and improves the Lysholm score and overall effective rate in patients with KOA. Additionally, CHM was well tolerated and safe in KOA patients. We found frequently used CHMs that might contribute to the formulation of a herbal formula that could be considered for further clinical use. However, given the heterogeneity and limited sample size in this study, larger multicenter and high-quality RCTs are needed to validate the benefits of CHM in the treatment of KOA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e30411124771
Elaine Izabel da Silva Cruz ◽  
Aline Helena da Silva Cruz ◽  
Rômulo Alberto Silva Marques ◽  
Rodrigo da Silva Santos ◽  
Angela Adamski da Silva Reis

Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity in the globe, with more than half of patients reporting pain as a result of the disease. By reducing cancer-related pain, dance has the potential to redefine the life of patients independently of their cure prognosis. This review investigated the benefits of dance as adjuvant, non-pharmacological therapy for cancer treatment. To identify studies related to this topic, we searched the Cochrane Library, PUBMED, Scielo, BVS, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. However, we found few published systematic reports investigating the effects of dance in cancer treatment. The numbers are even smaller when we considered the relationship between dance and cancer pain. Although there is a small number of publications on this theme, we reviewed studies that indicate that there is a positive relationship between dance practice and cancer pain management. Moreover, we found that the decline of pain contributed to the better life quality of patients with cancer. We concluded that dance is a physical practice that may improve patients’ quality of life. Regarding the estimations of cancer diagnosis and pain during disease development and therapy, it is fundamental new studies and clinical trials that integrate dance as adjuvant therapy for improving cancer pain and patient’s life quality.

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