Genetic Linkage Map
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qiang Zhang ◽  
Wenxin Wei ◽  
Xiangxi Zuansun ◽  
Shengnan Zhang ◽  
Chen Wang ◽  

Wheat leaf rust (also known as brown rust), caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia triticina Erikss. (Pt), is one by far the most troublesome wheat disease worldwide. The exploitation of resistance genes has long been considered as the most effective and sustainable method to control leaf rust in wheat production. Previously the leaf rust resistance gene Lr65 has been mapped to the distal end of chromosome arm 2AS linked to molecular marker Xbarc212. In this study, Lr65 was delimited to a 0.8 cM interval between flanking markers Alt-64 and AltID-11, by employing two larger segregating populations obtained from crosses of the resistant parent Altgold Rotkorn (ARK) with the susceptible parents Xuezao and Chinese Spring (CS), respectively. 24 individuals from 622 F2 plants of crosses between ARK and CS were obtained that showed the recombination between Lr65 gene and the flanking markers Alt-64 and AltID-11. With the aid of the CS reference genome sequence (IWGSC RefSeq v1.0), one SSR marker was developed between the interval matched to the Lr65-flanking marker and a high-resolution genetic linkage map was constructed. The Lr65 was finally located to a region corresponding to 60.11 Kb of the CS reference genome. The high-resolution genetic linkage map founded a solid foundation for the map-based cloning of Lr65 and the co-segregating marker will facilitate the marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the target gene.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gurpreet Kaur ◽  
Mamta Pathak ◽  
Deepak Singla ◽  
Abhishek Sharma ◽  
Parveen Chhuneja ◽  

Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a devastating disease that seriously affects its yield. Although there is currently no effective method to control the disease, breeding of resistant varieties is the most effective and economic option. Moreover, quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with resistance to YMD has not yet been reported. With the objective of mapping YMD resistance in bitter gourd, the susceptible parent “Punjab-14” and the resistant parent “PAUBG-6” were crossed to obtain F4 mapping population comprising 101 individuals. In the present study, the genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approach was used to develop the genetic linkage map. The map contained 3,144 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, consisted of 15 linkage groups, and it spanned 2415.2 cM with an average marker distance of 0.7 cM. By adopting the artificial and field inoculation techniques, F4:5 individuals were phenotyped for disease resistance in Nethouse (2019), Rainy (2019), and Spring season (2020). The QTL analysis using the genetic map and phenotyping data identified three QTLs qYMD.pau_3.1, qYMD.pau_4.1, and qYMD.pau_5.1 on chromosome 3, 4, and 5 respectively. Among these, qYMD.pau_3.1, qYMD.pau_4.1 QTLs were identified during the rainy season, explaining the 13.5 and 21.6% phenotypic variance respectively, whereas, during the spring season, qYMD.pau_4.1 and qYMD.pau_5.1 QTLs were observed with 17.5 and 22.1% phenotypic variance respectively. Only one QTL qYMD.pau_5.1 was identified for disease resistance under nethouse conditions with 15.6% phenotypic variance. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of QTLs associated with YMD resistance in bitter gourd using SNP markers. The information generated in this study is very useful in the future for fine-mapping and marker-assisted selection for disease resistance.

2021 ◽  
Yifei Jiang ◽  
Huaiyong Luo ◽  
Bolun Yu ◽  
Yingbin Ding ◽  
Yanping Kang ◽  

Abstract Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is rich in edible oil and protein, which is widely planted around the world as an oil and cash crop. However, aflatoxin contamination seriously affects the quality safety of peanut, hindering the development of peanut industry and threatening consumers’ health. Breeding peanut varieties with resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection is important for control the aflatoxin contamination, and understanding of the genetic basis of resistance is vital to its genetic enhancement. In this study, we report the QTL mapping of resistance to A. flavus infection of a well-known resistant variety J11. A recombination inbred line (RIL) population was constructed by crossing a susceptible variety Zhonghua 16 and J11. Through whole-genome resequencing, a genetic linkage map was constructed with 2,802 recombination bins and an average inter-bin distance of 0.58 cM. Combined with phenotypic data of infection index in four consecutive years, six novel resistant QTLs were identified and they explained 5.03-10.87% phenotypic variances. The favorable alleles of five QTLs were from J11 while that of one QTL were from Zhonghua 16. The pyramiding of these favorable alleles significantly improved the resistance to A. flavus infection. These results could contribute greatly to understanding of genetic basis of A. flavus resistance and could be meaningful in further resistance improvement in peanut.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Qiaomu Hu ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Xiaolin Liao ◽  
Haifeng Tian ◽  
Xiangshan Ji ◽  

Abstract Background The Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus is an important amphibian species in China because of its increasing economic value, protection status and special evolutionary position from aquatic to terrestrial animal. Its large genome presents challenges to genetic research. Genetic linkage mapping is an important tool for genome assembly and determination of phenotype-related loci. Results In this study, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map using ddRAD sequencing technology to obtain SNP genotyping data of members from an full-sib family which sex had been determined. A total of 10,896 markers were grouped and oriented into 30 linkage groups, representing 30 chromosomes of A. davidianus. The genetic length of LGs ranged from 17.61 cM (LG30) to 280.81 cM (LG1), with a mean inter-locus distance ranging from 0.11(LG3) to 0.48 cM (LG26). The total genetic map length was 2643.10 cM with an average inter-locus distance of 0.24 cM. Three sex-related loci and four sex-related markers were found on LG6 and LG23, respectively. Conclusion We constructed the first High-density genetic linkage map and identified three sex-related loci in the Chinese giant salamander. Current results are expected to be a useful tool for future genomic studies aiming at the marker-assisted breeding of the species.

2021 ◽  
Rasmus Skern-Mauritzen ◽  
Ketil Malde ◽  
Christiane Eichner ◽  
Michael Dondrup ◽  
Tomasz Furmanek ◽  

Arthropods comprise the most populous groups of animals and show an astonishing diversity. Aquatic arthropods belonging to the sub-class Copepoda encompass a range of ecological roles from endo- and ectoparasites to grazers of phytoplankton that link primary producers to higher trophic levels. Despite the important role of copepods in central ecosystem services and their impact as parasites, representative genomic data and genome assemblies are scarce. This limits our opportunities to understand both the specific biology of individual species and unifying copepod genomic features that may govern their capacities to, for example, adapt to a changing environment. Among the copepod parasites we find Lepeophtheirus salmonis, an important ectoparasite that represents a threat to wild salmonid stocks and causes large annual losses to the salmon farming industry. Here we present the salmon louse genome - the first genome of a parasitic copepod that is fully sequenced and annotated. The 695.4 Mbp assembly was validated by a genetic linkage map and comprises 13 autosomes that recombine almost exclusively in males, one autosome that is shielded from recombination in both sexes and a ZZ-ZW style sex chromosome system. The genome assembly contains approximate 60% repetitive regions and comprise 13081 annotated predicted protein-coding genes. The predicted gene set appears to be quite complete as 92.4% of the expected Arthropod genes were found by a BUSCO. The gene annotations were validated by transcriptome sequencing that corresponds to the expected function of selected tissues. Transcriptome sequencing further revealed a marked shift in the gene expression pattern at the transition from the planktonic dispersal phase to the parasitic lifestyle after host attachment. Among other features, genes related to circadian rhythm are downregulated upon attaching to a host - probably reflecting abandoning a planktonic life with diurnal migration. The genome shows several evolutionary signatures including a large expansion of FNII domains, commonly considered vertebrate specific, and an incomplete heme homeostasis pathway suggesting that heme proteins are obtained from the host. The salmon louse has repeatedly demonstrated a large capacity to develop resistance against chemical treatments. Nonetheless, it exhibits low reduced numbers of several genes commonly involved in detoxification; cytochrome P450, ATP-Binding Cassette type transporters and Glutathione S-transferases. Interestingly, only one gene family with a putative detoxification role was expanded: the major vault proteins. Finally, the salmon louse has lost the ability to sustain peroxisomes, a loss apparently shared in the Caligid family but not among copepods in general.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 322
Yang Zhou ◽  
Yuanjun Ye ◽  
Lu Feng ◽  
Ye Zhang ◽  
Qifang Lin ◽  

Plant architecture improvement is of great significance in influencing crop yield, harvesting efficiency and ornamental value, by changing the spatial structure of the canopy. However, the mechanism on plant architecture in woody plants is still unclear. In order to study the genetic control of plant architecture traits and promote marker-assisted selection (MAS), a genetic linkage map was constructed, and QTL mapping was performed. In this study, using 188 BC2 progenies as materials, a genetic map of Lagerstroemia was constructed using amplification fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, and the QTLs of four key plant architecture traits (plant height, crown width, primary lateral branch height and internode length) were analyzed. The genetic map contains 22 linkage groups, including 198 AFLP markers and 36 SSR markers. The total length of the genome covered by the map is 1272 cM, and the average distance between markers is 6.8 cM. Three QTLs related to plant height were located in LG1, LG4 and LG17 linkage groups, and the phenotypic variation rates were 32.36, 16.18 and 12.73%, respectively. A QTL related to crown width was located in LG1 linkage group, and the phenotypic variation rate was 18.07%. Two QTLs related to primary lateral branch height were located in the LG1 and LG7 linkage groups, and the phenotypic variation rates were 20.59 and 15.34%, respectively. Two QTLs related to internode length were located in the LG1 and LG20 linkage groups, and the phenotypic variation rates were 14.86 and 9.87%. The results provide a scientific basis for finely mapping genes of plant architecture traits and marker-assisted breeding in Lagerstroemia.

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