Effect of progressive irrigation water reductions on super-high-density olive orchards according to different scarcity scenarios

2022 ◽  
Vol 262 ◽  
pp. 107399
M.A. Martínez-Gimeno ◽  
A. Zahaf ◽  
E. Badal ◽  
S. Paz ◽  
L. Bonet ◽  
Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 142
Gonçalo C. Rodrigues ◽  
Francisco G. da Silva ◽  
José C. Coelho

This paper aims to determine farmers’ willingness to pay for irrigation water, using the residual value method, for the most representative crops at six Irrigation Communities from the Alentejo region, southern Portugal. The main objective of this assessment was to determine the value that farmers would be able to pay for the water to irrigate different crops at different locations, and to show that this approach can be used to provide information about farming economic sustainability and provide support on if crop prices need to be revised or if a national policy should be conceived to cover for farming costs. The results show that vegetables and fruit trees have the highest Residual Value of Water (RVW), while Wheat, Sunflower, Fodder crops, Semi-intensive Olive Orchards and Rice tend to have an RVW lower than the current variable irrigation water price. The results also show that, while, for Melon, Tomato, Onion, Super-high-density Olive Orchards, Peach and Almonds, both yields and price may decrease significantly, allowing one to save for faming inputs, Sunflower and Rice would require an increase in yields or prices to cover for the irrigation water price.

S. McKernan ◽  
C. B. Carter ◽  
D. Bour ◽  
J. R. Shealy

The growth of ternary III-V semiconductors by organo-metallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) is widely practiced. It has been generally assumed that the resulting structure is the same as that of the corresponding binary semiconductors, but with the two different cation or anion species randomly distributed on their appropriate sublattice sites. Recently several different ternary semiconductors including AlxGa1-xAs, Gaxln-1-xAs and Gaxln1-xP1-6 have been observed in ordered states. A common feature of these ordered compounds is that they contain a relatively high density of defects. This is evident in electron diffraction patterns from these materials where streaks, which are typically parallel to the growth direction, are associated with the extra reflections arising from the ordering. However, where the (Ga,ln)P epilayer is reasonably well ordered the streaking is extremely faint, and the intensity of the ordered spot at 1/2(111) is much greater than that at 1/2(111). In these cases it is possible to image relatively clearly many of the defects found in the ordered structure.

L. Mulestagno ◽  
J.C. Holzer ◽  
P. Fraundorf

Due to the wealth of information, both analytical and structural that can be obtained from it TEM always has been a favorite tool for the analysis of process-induced defects in semiconductor wafers. The only major disadvantage has always been, that the volume under study in the TEM is relatively small, making it difficult to locate low density defects, and sample preparation is a somewhat lengthy procedure. This problem has been somewhat alleviated by the availability of efficient low angle milling.Using a PIPS® variable angle ion -mill, manufactured by Gatan, we have been consistently obtaining planar specimens with a high quality thin area in excess of 5 × 104 μm2 in about half an hour (milling time), which has made it possible to locate defects at lower densities, or, for defects of relatively high density, obtain information which is statistically more significant (table 1).

Evelyn R. Ackerman ◽  
Gary D. Burnett

Advancements in state of the art high density Head/Disk retrieval systems has increased the demand for sophisticated failure analysis methods. From 1968 to 1974 the emphasis was on the number of tracks per inch. (TPI) ranging from 100 to 400 as summarized in Table 1. This emphasis shifted with the increase in densities to include the number of bits per inch (BPI). A bit is formed by magnetizing the Fe203 particles of the media in one direction and allowing magnetic heads to recognize specific data patterns. From 1977 to 1986 the tracks per inch increased from 470 to 1400 corresponding to an increase from 6300 to 10,800 bits per inch respectively. Due to the reduction in the bit and track sizes, build and operating environments of systems have become critical factors in media reliability.Using the Ferrofluid pattern developing technique, the scanning electron microscope can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the examination of failure sites on disks.

VASA ◽  
2014 ◽  
Vol 43 (3) ◽  
pp. 189-197 ◽  
Yiqiang Zhan ◽  
Jinming Yu ◽  
Rongjing Ding ◽  
Yihong Sun ◽  
Dayi Hu

Background: The associations of triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (HDL‑C) and total cholesterol (TC) to HDL‑C ratio and low ankle brachial index (ABI) were seldom investigated. Patients and methods: A population based cross-sectional survey was conducted and 2982 participants 60 years and over were recruited. TG, TC, HDL‑C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were assessed in all participants. Low ABI was defined as ABI ≤ 0.9 in either leg. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to study the association between TG/HDL‑C ratio, TC/HDL‑C ratio and low ABI. Results: The TG/HDL‑C ratios for those with ABI > 0.9 and ABI ≤ 0.9 were 1.28 ± 1.20 and 1.48 ± 1.13 (P < 0.0001), while the TC/HDL‑C ratios were 3.96 ± 1.09 and 4.32 ± 1.15 (P < 0.0001), respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, obesity, current drinking, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, lipid-lowering drugs, and cardiovascular disease history, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of low ABI for TG/HDL‑C ratio and TC/HDL‑C ratio were 1.10 (0.96, 1.26) and 1.34 (1.14, 1.59) in non-smokers. When TC was further adjusted, the ORs (95 % CIs) were 1.40 (0.79, 2.52) and 1.53 (1.21, 1.93) for TG/HDL‑C ratio and TC/HDL‑C ratio, respectively. Non-linear relationships were detected between TG/HDL‑C ratio and TC/HDL‑C ratio and low ABI in both smokers and non-smokers. Conclusions: TC/HDL‑C ratio was significantly associated with low ABI in non-smokers and the association was independent of TC, TG, HDL‑C, and LDL-C. TC/HDL‑C might be considered as a potential biomarker for early peripheral arterial disease screening.

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