Volatile Compounds
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 305-315
Author(s):  
Shasha Qi ◽  
Ping Zhan ◽  
Honglei Tian ◽  
Peng Wang ◽  
Xueping Ma ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Monika Jangir ◽  
Shilpi Sharma ◽  
Satyawati Sharma

AbstractBiocontrol agents serve as a sustainable means of controlling wilt caused by the widespread plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The present study aimed to develop water dispersible granules (WDG) using response surface methodology (RSM) for Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2274 and Trichoderma harzianum MTCC 3928, and to compare their antifungal efficacy with other formulations. Further, characterization of the bioactive metabolites responsible for biocontrol was performed. A new microbial formulation, WDG, was developed in the present study with talcum powder (substrate), alginic acid (dispersing agent) and acacia gum (wetting agent) (suspensibility 82.23%; wetting time 2.5 min; dispersion time 10.08 min) that fulfilled the guidelines of Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC). In planta study demonstrated that WDG of B. subtilis showed maximum reduction in disease incidence (48%) followed by talc formulation of B. subtilis (44%) and WDG of T. harzianum (42%) with profound effect on plant growth promotion. B. subtilis and T. harzianum demonstrated protease (929 and 846 U ml−1 min−1), chitinase (33.69 and 154 U ml−1 min−1), and β-1,3-glucanase (12.69 and 21.47 U ml−1 min−1) activities. Culture filtrates of B. subtilis and T. harzianum exhibited significant inhibition against mycelial growth of pathogen. The compounds present in the culture filtrates were identified with GC–MS as fatty acids, alkanes, phenols, benzene, pyran derivatives etc. The major non-volatile compounds in bioactive antifungal fraction were identified as derivatives of morpholine and piperdine for T. harzianum and B. subtilis, respectively. The findings propose a multivariate biocontrol mechanism against phytopathogen by production of hydrolytic enzymes, volatile and non-volatile compounds, together with development of an efficient next-generation formulation.


Author(s):  
Ting Huang ◽  
Zhen-Ming Lu ◽  
Ming-Ye Peng ◽  
Li-Juan Chai ◽  
Xiao-Juan Zhang ◽  
...  

Mature vinegar culture has usually been used as a type of autochthonous starter for rapidly initiate initiating the next batch of acetic acid fermentation (AAF) and maintaining the batch-to-batch uniformity of AAF in the production of traditional cereal vinegar. However, the vitality and dominance of functional microbes in autochthonous starters remain unclear, which hinders further improvement of fermentation yield and production. Here, based on metagenomic (MG), metatranscriptomic (MT), and 16S rRNA gene sequencings, 11 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with significant metabolic activity (MT/MG ratio >1) and dominance (relative abundance >1%) were targeted in the autochthonous vinegar starter, all of which were assigned to 4 species ( Acetobacter pasteurianus , Lactobacillus acetotolerans , L. helveticus , Acetilactobacillus jinshanensis ). Then, we evaluated the successions and interactions of these 11 bacterial OTUs at different AAF stages. Last, a defined starter was constructed with 4 core species isolated from the autochthonous starter ( A. pasteurianus , L. acetotolerans , L. helveticus , Ac. jinshanensis ). The defined starter culture could rapidly initiate the AAF in a sterile or unsterilized environment and similar dynamics of metabolites (ethanol, titratable acidity, acetic acid, lactic acid, and volatile compounds) and environmental indexes (temperature, pH) of fermentation were observed as compared with that of autochthonous starter ( P > 0.05). This work provides a method to construct a defined microbiota from a complex system while preserving its metabolic function. IMPORTANCE Complex microorganisms are beneficial to the flavor formation in natural food fermentation, but they also pose challenges to the mass production of standardized products. It is attractive to construct a defined starter to rapidly initiate fermentation process and significantly improve fermentation yield. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of vital and dominant species in the autochthonous vinegar starter via multi-omics, and designs a defined microbial community for the efficient fermentation of cereal vinegar.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Matheus Alex Araújo Resende ◽  
Rafaela Karin De Lima

Introdução: O queijo é um rico produto alimentício que possuí diferentes voláteis em sua composição incluindo terpenóides. Visto a diversidade de produtos e de tipos desse alimento, a pesquisa buscou na literatura, artigos que utilizaram a Microextração em Fase Sólida acoplado a Cromatografia Gasosa (SPME-GC/MS) de queijos do tipo Minas Padrão, Minas Frescal, Coalho, Prato, Pecorino, Feta e Emmental no período de 2001 a 2021. Objetivo: Este resumo tem como objeto de estudo de terpenos e outros voláteis presentes nos queijos, buscando a análise de presença ou não destas moléculas em diferentes tipos de queijos com o objetivo de analisar como essas moléculas ajudam na particularidade dos aromas dos queijos. Material e Métodos: Os artigos para a revisão foram selecionados de acordo com sua relevância na plataforma Google Scholar dos últimos 20 anos, além da verificação do fator de impacto da revista da publicação. Assim, a base das palavras chaves utilizadas foram “Volatile compounds of cheeses”, “SPME analysis cheeses”, Minas chesses volatiles”, “Brazilian chesses volatiles” e “European cheeses volatile compunds”. Além de uma breve revisão da importância das moléculas voláteis e dos terpenos para os aromas presentes nos queijos, os artigos revisados também determinaram suas origens, que no caso dos terpenóides são relacionadas à alimentação dos ruminantes, de base vegetal. Também como método de identificação nas amostras, a Análise de Variância (ANOVA), o que permitiu uma interpretação dos compostos não somente qualitativamente, mas também quantitativamente. Resultados: Obteve-se uma tabela que apresenta voláteis identificados nos tipos de queijo em diversas amostras. Essa tabela se demonstrou útil para interpretar os diferentes tipos de queijo de acordo com os voláteis, incluindo terpenóides. Finalmente, tem-se uma breve discussão sobre pesquisas futuras nessa área e como os terpenos podem ser utilizados como marcadores moleculares nos tipos de queijos. Conclusão: Este trabalho mostra, através de uma revisão bibliográfica, que os compostos voláteis são um fator fundamental para o aroma e possuem uma grande diversidade de concentrações nos tipos de queijos estudados. Os resultados demonstraram a presença de diferentes moléculas de terpenos e outros voláteis, o que pode gerar sabores típicos de cada tipo de queijo.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2529
Author(s):  
Marija Nazlić ◽  
Željana Fredotović ◽  
Elma Vuko ◽  
Nenad Vuletić ◽  
Ivica Ljubenkov ◽  
...  

The composition of free volatile compounds of essential oils (EO) and hydrosols (Hy) from four different localities of the species Veronica austriaca ssp. jacquinii (Baumg.) Eb. Fisch. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In the EOs, the most abundant compounds identified were hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (23.34–52.56%), hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid, 26.71–58.91%) and octadecanol acetate (0–6.24%). The hydrosols were characterized by high abundance of methyl eugenol (23.35–57.93%), trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (5.24–7.69%) and thymol (3.48–9.45%). Glandular trichomes were analyzed using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), as they are the sites of synthesis of free volatile compounds. We have detected glandular trichomes, consisting of a one stalk cell and two elliptically shaped head cells, and non-glandular (unbranched, bi-cellular to multicellular) trichomes on stems, leaves and the sepals. Data for volatile compounds from EOs and hydrosols were analyzed using Principal Component Analyses (PCA) to demonstrate variations in the composition of the volatile compounds identified. Isolated samples of EO and hydrosols were analyzed for their antioxidant activity using two methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity). The essential oils showed higher antioxidant activity than the hydrosols in ORAC method, but lower activity by the DPPH method. The isolates were also tested for their antiproliferative activity on different types of cancer cells and also on two lines of healthy cells, and the results showed that the extracts were not toxic to the cell lines tested. Total polyphenols, total tannins, total flavonoids and total phenolic acids were also analyzed and determined spectrophotometrically. The free volatile compounds of Veronica austriaca ssp. jacquinii can be considered as a safe natural product.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2869
Author(s):  
Linjie Xi ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Ruixiao Wu ◽  
Tian Wang ◽  
Wu Ding

Zhenba bacon (ZB), a type of Chinese traditional bacon with a long history, has attracted considerable attention in the Southwest of China for its unique flavor. To elucidate the changing course of aroma components during the process of ZB, four stages of process stages were assessed by GC–MS and GC–IMS coupled with multivariate data analysis. A total of 44 volatile compounds were identified by GC–IMS, including 5 esters, 8 alcohols, 12 aldehydes, 3 ketones, 1 furan and 2 sulfides; 40 volatile compounds were identified by GC–MS, 4 ketones, 7 phenols, 8 alcohols, 6 esters, 6 aldehydes, and 6 other compounds were detected. During the curing period, the amount and content of esters in Zhenba bacon gradually increased. Phenols appear in large quantities during the smoking period. The VOCs (volatile organic compounds) in the gallery plots were the most diverse in YZ samples, which are mainly esters. POV (peroxide value) and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) showed that lipid oxidation played an important role in the formation of volatile flavor components of bacon. This study provides valuable analytical data to explain the flavor formation of Zhenba bacon.


Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (22) ◽  
pp. 6954
Author(s):  
Teresa Soledad Cid-Pérez ◽  
Guadalupe Virginia Nevárez-Moorillón ◽  
Carlos Enrique Ochoa-Velasco ◽  
Addí Rhode Navarro-Cruz ◽  
Paola Hernández-Carranza ◽  
...  

Saffron is derived from the stigmas of the flower Crocus sativus L. The drying process is the most important post-harvest step for converting C. sativus stigmas into saffron. The aim of this review is to evaluate saffron’s post-harvest conditions in the development of volatile compounds and its aroma descriptors. It describes saffron’s compound generation by enzymatic pathways and degradation reactions. Saffron quality is described by their metabolite’s solubility and the determination of picrocrocin, crocins, and safranal. The drying process induce various modifications in terms of color, flavor and aroma, which take place in the spice. It affects the aromatic species chemical profile. In the food industry, saffron is employed for its sensory attributes, such as coloring, related mainly to crocins (mono-glycosyl esters or di-glycosyl polyene).


Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1832
Author(s):  
Renata Jurišić Grubešić ◽  
Marija Nazlić ◽  
Tina Miletić ◽  
Elma Vuko ◽  
Nenad Vuletić ◽  
...  

Previous research on specialized metabolites of olive leaves has focused on the phenolic components and their biological role. The research in this article focuses on the metabolites that form free volatile compounds (FVCs). The composition of FVCs is divided into compounds isolated in the oil phase (essential oils; EO) and in the aqueous phase (hydrosols; Hy) from leaves of Olea europaea L. cultivar Oblica. Plant material was collected from the same olive tree over a six-month period, from December to May, and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The compounds β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, allo-aromadendrene, docosane, hexadecanoic acid and oleic acid were identified in all EO study periods. In the Hy in all studied periods, the major compounds are α-pinene, β-ionone, myristicin, docosane, 1-hexanol, oleic acid and (E)-β-damascenone. The differences in the qualitative composition of FVC are directly related to the phenological development of the leaves. Antioxidant capacity of the EOs and hydrosols was measured with two methods, ORAC and DPPH. Hydrosol extracts showed higher capacity than the EOs in all methods.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2504
Author(s):  
Anca Corina Fărcaș ◽  
Sonia Ancuța Socaci ◽  
Maria Simona Chiș ◽  
Oana Lelia Pop ◽  
Melinda Fogarasi ◽  
...  

Nowadays, the pandemic situation has encouraged the idea of sustainable healthy foods leading to new trends in food consumption. Brewers spent grain (BSG) represents a potential functional food rich in fiber, protein, lipids, mineral and phenols that needs to be further exploited. In this vein, five different BSG types were collected from local breweries and valorized in cookies manufacturing. Thus, proximate composition (protein, minerals, lipids, ash, crude fiber and carbohydrates) was analyzed using AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists) methods, DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and Folin Ciocalteu methods were used to determined antioxidant activity and total phenols, while minerals and aroma volatile compounds were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and ITEX/GC-MS (in tube extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) respectively. Color and physical characteristics, together with sensorial analysis, were also evaluated. The results highlighted a significant difference between BSG samples, mainly from the total phenols, antioxidant activity and aroma volatile compounds point of view. BSG volatiles compounds from the aldehydes group such as 2-methyl-propanal, 3-methyl-butanal and 2-methyl-butanal were identified also in the final baked goods, leading to a pleasant and appreciated consumers’ taste and aroma. Furthermore, cookies sensorial analysis emphasized that the sample manufactured with BSG from light and dark malt mixture was more appreciated by consumers, attaining the highest hedonic scores.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2843
Author(s):  
Yulu Sun ◽  
Yue Ma ◽  
Shuang Chen ◽  
Yan Xu ◽  
Ke Tang

Sweetness is an important Baijiu quality marker, but there is limited research on it. In this study, the main contributors to Baijiu sweetness were identified by “sensomics” combined with “flavoromics”. A total of 43 volatile compounds (mostly esters) were found that appeared to contribute to Baijiu sweetness, through sensory-guided fractionation and compositional analysis. Correlation analysis between the volatile composition and perceived sweetness of 18 Baijiu samples with different sweet intensities identified 14 potential contributors. Additional testing verified that combining the 14 compounds reproduced Baijiu sweetness exactly, and omission testing identified ethyl hexanoate, hexyl hexanoate and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate as the major contributors to Baijiu sweetness. These findings not only broadened our understanding of Baijiu sweetness, but also highlighted the major contribution of volatile compounds to sweetness perception, knowledge which may facilitate future flavor modification of a wide variety of foods and beverages.


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