The aim of this study was to evaluate if adhesion technology with CAD/CAM can compensate for the reduction of occluso cervical preparation heights using different types of dental cement. The de-bonding failure types were then assessed. Here, 72 caries-free extracted human premolar teeth
were prepared to have a remaining occlusal height of two, three, and four mm. IPS e.max lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns were cemented with adhesive resin cement Panavia SA, self-adhesive resin cement, RelyX Unicem Aplicap, and zinc phosphate cement. The cementation techniques were based
on the manufacturer’s instructions. After thermocycling, all samples were tested for tensile bond strength via an Instron machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc testing (P < 0.05) was performed. The means TBS for the two, three, and four-mm OCHP groups
were 2.72±0.69, 3.06±0.82, and 3.25±0.79.0 MPa; ARC, SARC, and ZPC were 3.41±0.51, 3.45±0.41, 2.08±0.35 MPa, respectively with significant differences in both. The mixed cement had failures in the resin cement groups. Failure was predominantly cohesive
in the zinc phosphate group. Resin cement had the highest SBS values versus ZPC values when both bonded to lithium disilicate crowns with different occlusal heights. The failure of the adhesive to the crown and/or to the tooth were the highest for the four types of resin cement. Around 25%
were cohesive failures with resin cement, but this was predominately adhesive in crowns in zinc phosphate regardless of the preparation heights.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of thermocycling on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive, self-etching resin cements luted to human dentin and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramics. Three modern self-adhesive dental cements (Maxcem Elite, RelyX U200, Panavia SA) were used to lute three CAD/CAM ceramics (IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, IPS e.max ZirCAD) onto the dentin. One conventional cement (Panavia V5) served as a control. After preparation, the samples were subjected to thermocycling as a method of artificial aging of dental materials applied to simulate long-term use in oral conditions. Shear bond strength was evaluated according to PN-EN ISO 29022:2013-10 and failure modes were observed under a light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed. The study demonstrated that a combination of ceramics and cements directly impacts the bond strength. The highest bond strength was observed in Panavia V5, lower in Panavia SA and Maxcem Elite and the lowest–in RelyX U200. Adhesive failure between human dentin and cements was the most common failure mode. Moreover, thermocycling highly decreased bond strength of self-adhesive, self-etching cements.
AbstractStandard Offset surfaces are defined as locus of the points which are at constant distance along the unit normal direction from the generator surfaces. Offset are widely used in various practical applications, such as tolerance analysis, geometric optics and robot path-planning. In some of the engineering applications, we need to extend the concept of standard offset to the generalized offset where distance offset is not necessarily constant and offset direction are not necessarily along the normal direction. Normally, a generalized offset is functionally more complex than its progenitor because of the square root appears in the expression of the unit normal vector. For this, an approximation method of its construction is necessary. In many situation it is necessary to fill or reconstruct certain function defined in a domain in which there is a lack of information inside one or several sub-domains (holes). In some practical cases, we may have some specific geometrical constrains, of industrial or design type, for example, the case of a specified volume inside each one of these holes. The problem of filling holes or completing a 3D surface arises in all sorts of computational graphics areas, like CAGD, CAD-CAM, Earth Sciences, computer vision in robotics, image reconstruction from satellite and radar information, etc. In this work we present an approximation method of filling holes of the generalized offset of a surface when there is a lack information in a sub-domain of the function that define it. We prove the existence and uniqueness of solution of this problem, we show how to compute it and we establish a convergence result of this approximation method. Finally, we give some graphical and numerical examples.