Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) are considered an eco-friendly alternative to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for mitigating greenhouse-gas emissions and enabling efficient waste recycling. In this paper, an innovative seawater sea-sand concrete (SWSSC), that is, seawater sea-sand alkali-activated concrete (SWSSAAC), was developed using AAMs instead of OPC to explore the application of marine resources and to improve the durability of conventional SWSSC structures. Then, three types of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars, that is, basalt-FRP, glass-FRP, and carbon-FRP bars, were selected to investigate their bond behavior with SWSSAAC at different alkaline dosages (3%, 4%, and 6% Na2O contents). The experimental results manifested that the utilization of the alkali-activated binders can increase the splitting tensile strength ( ft) of the concrete due to the denser microstructures of AAMs than OPC pastes. This improved characteristic was helpful in enhancing the bond performance of FRP bars, especially the slope of bond-slip curves in the ascending section (i.e., bond stiffness). Approximately three times enhancement in terms of the initial bond rigidity was achieved with SWSSAAC compared to SWSSC at the same concrete strength. Furthermore, compared with the BFRP and GFRP bars, the specimens reinforced with the CFRP bars experienced higher bond strength and bond rigidity due to their relatively high tensile strength and elastic modulus. Additionally, significant improvements in initial bond stiffness and bond strength were also observed as the alkaline contents (i.e., concrete strength) of the SWSSAAC were aggrandized, demonstrating the integration of the FRP bars and SWSSAAC is achievable, which contributes to an innovative channel for the development of SWSSC pavements or structures.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gas species used for low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma surface treatment, using various gas species and different treatment times, on zirconia surface state and the bond strength between zirconia and dental resin cement. Three groups of zirconia specimens with different surface treatments were prepared as follows: untreated group, alumina sandblasting treatment group, and plasma treatment group. Nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), argon (Ar), and air were employed for plasma irradiation. The bond strength between each zirconia specimen and resin cement was compared using a tension test. The effect of the gas species for plasma irradiation on the zirconia surface was investigated using a contact angle meter, an optical interferometer, an X-ray diffractometer, and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy. Plasma irradiation increased the wettability and decreased the carbon contamination on the zirconia surface, whereas it did not affect the surface topography and crystalline phase. The bond strength varied depending on the gas species and irradiation time. Plasma treatment with N2 gas significantly increased bond strength compared to the untreated group and showed a high bond strength equivalent to that of the sandblasting treatment group. The removal of carbon contamination from the zirconia surface and an increase in the percentage of Zr-O2 on the zirconia surface by plasma irradiation might increase bond strength.
Using fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) in construction avoids corrosion issues associated with the use of traditional steel reinforcement, while seawater and sea sand concrete (SWSSC) reduces environmental issues and resource shortages caused by the production of traditional concrete. The paper gives an overview of the current research on the bond performance between FRP tube and concrete with particular focus on SWSSC. The review follows a thematic broad-to-narrow approach. It reflects on the current research around the significance and application of FRP and SWSSC and discusses important issues around the bond strength and cyclic behaviour of tubular composites. A review of recent studies of bond strength between FRP and concrete and steel and concrete under static or cyclic loading using pushout tests is presented. In addition, the influence of different parameters on the pushout test results are summarised. Finally, recommendations for future studies are proposed.
Thermal barrier coating plays a vital role in protecting materials' surfaces from high-temperature environment conditions. This work compares the demeanour of uncoated and air plasma sprayed Cr3C2-25NiCr and NiCrMoNb coated X8CrNiMoVNb16-13 substrates subjected to air oxidation and molten salt (Na2SO4 + 60%V2O5) environment condition at 900°C for 50 cycles. Coating characteristics have been analyzed through microstructure, thickness, porosity, hardness, and bond strength. SEM, EDS and XRD analysis were used to analyze corrosion's product at the end of the 50th cycle. Coating microstructures showed a uniform laminar structure that is adherent and denser with a coating thickness of 150 ± 20 μm and porosity less than 3.5%. The Microhardness of both the coated substrates were higher than that of the bare substrate. Cr3C2-25NiCr and NiCrMoNb coating bond strength was 38.9 MPa and 42.5 MPa. Thermogravimetric analysis showed the parabolic rate law of oxidation for all the substrates in both environments. In the molten salt environment, all the substrates exhibited higher weight gain compared to the air oxidation environment. In both environmental conditions, the uncoated X8CrNiMoVNb16-13 alloy exhibited higher weight gain than the coated substrates. The formation of Cr2O3, NiO and spinel oxide NiCr2O4 offers good resistance to corrosion to all the substrates in both the environmental condition. However, the presence of Mo and Nb significantly accelerated the corrosion of the substrate, thereby increasing the weight of the NiCrMoNb substrate. It is observed that Cr3C2-25NiCr and NiCrMoNb coating over the X8CrNiMoVNb16-13 substrate significantly protected the substrate against the hot corrosion than the bare alloy exposed to similar environmental conditions.
Although glueing softwood is well mastered by the industry, predicting and controlling bond quality for hardwood is still challenging after years of research. Parameters such as the adhesive type, resin–hardener ratio, and the penetration behaviour of the wood are determinants for the bond quality. The aim of this work was to assess to what extent the glueing behaviour of beechwood can be improved by using structural planing. The different surfacing methods were characterised by their roughness. The bond strength of the micro-structured surfaces was determined according to EN 302-1, and the delamination resistance was tested as indicated by EN 302-2 for type I adhesives. Micro-structured surfaces were compared with different surfaces (generated by surfacing methods such as dull/sharp planing and sanding). In dry test conditions, all surfacing methods gave satisfying results. In the wet stage, the bond strength on the finer micro-structured surface slightly outperformed the coarse structure surface. For the delamination resistance, a clear improvement could be observed for melamine-formaldehyde-bonded specimens since, when using the recommended amount of adhesive, micro-structured surfaces fulfilled the requirements. Nevertheless, structural planing cannot lead to a reduction in the applied grammage since no sample with a smaller amount fulfilled EN 302-2 requirements even by observing the recommended closed assembly waiting time. Adhesion area enlargement of the micro-structuring is minor. The good delamination performance without waiting time (CAT) is not caused by surface enlargement, since finer micro-structured surface with negligible area increase and delivered even better delamination resistance. Subsurface analysis should be carried out to thoroughly investigate this phenomenon.
Bioactive collagen crosslinkers propose to render the dentin hybrid layer less perceptive to hydrolytic challenge. This study aims to evaluate whether bond strength of dental resin composite to dentin benefits from riboflavin (RB)-sensitized crosslinking when used in a clinically applicable protocol. A total of 300 human dentin specimens were prepared consistent with the requirements for a macro-shear bond test. RB was applied on dentin, either incorporated in the primer (RBp) of a two-step self-etch adhesive or as an aqueous solution (RBs) before applying the adhesive, and blue light from a commercial polymerization device was used for RB photoactivation. Bonding protocol executed according to the manufacturer’s information served as control. Groups (n = 20) were tested after 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months or 1 year immersion times (37 °C, distilled water). The different application methods of RB significantly influenced bond strength (p < 0.001) with a medium impact (η2p = 0.119). After 1 year immersion, post hoc analysis identified a significant advantage for RB groups compared to RBp (p = 0.018), which is attributed to a pH-/solvent-dependent efficiency of RB-sensitized crosslinking, stressing the importance of formulation adjustments. We developed an application protocol for RB-sensitized crosslinking with emphasis on clinical applicability to test its performance against a gold-standard adhesive, and are confident that, with a few adjustments to the application solution, RB-sensitized crosslinking can improve the longevity of adhesive restorations in clinics.