flexural strength
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2022 ◽  
Vol 152 ◽  
pp. 106675
Rui Liang ◽  
Qing Liu ◽  
Dongshuai Hou ◽  
Zongjin Li ◽  
Guoxing Sun

Shubham Padmaker Thakur

Abstract: Several composite materials are being used in biomedical and dental field with their immense applications to repair and transform various organs in human body. Recent advances suggest that Hydroxyapatite is one of the most reliable and widely used inorganic composite in dentistry. Desirable applications of Hydroxyapatite are achieved by utilizing variety of hydroxyapatite and their composites. This study was conducted to evaluate the compressive & flexural strength. Cylindrical specimens (n=9) for compressive strength & rectangular shaped specimens (n=9) for flexural strength were made according to manufacturer’s recommendations. Dental composite is using quartz, silica, and alumina glass as filler for a long time. Taguchi optimization technique keeps the experimentation within limit giving valid product in the calculating of compressive and flexural strength optimization. The goal of the work is to detect the best combination of composite materials. Keywords: Hydroxyapatite, Compressive Strength, Flexural Strength, Taguchi’s optimization method.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 652
Baoguo Wang ◽  
Rong Tu ◽  
Yinglong Wei ◽  
Haopeng Cai

Self-healing ceramics have been researched at high temperatures, but few have been considered at lower temperatures. In this study, SiC-Al2O3-B4C ceramic composite was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS). A Vickers indentation was introduced, and the cracks were healed between 600 °C and 800 °C in air. Cracks could be healed completely in air above 700 °C. The ceramic composite had the best healing performance at 700 °C for 30 min, recovering flexural strength of up to 94.2% of the original. Good crack-healing ability would make this composite highly useful as it could heal defects and flaws autonomously in practical applications. The healing mechanism was also proposed to be the result of the oxidation of B4C.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 607
Chenggong Chang ◽  
Lingyun An ◽  
Rui Lin ◽  
Jing Wen ◽  
Jinmei Dong ◽  

In order to make full use of magnesium chloride resources, the development and utilisation of magnesium oxychloride cement have become an ecological and economic goal. Thus far, however, investigations into the effects on these cements of high temperatures are lacking. Herein, magnesium oxychloride cement was calcinated at various temperatures and the effects of calcination temperature on microstructure, phase composition, flexural strength, and compressive strength were studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and compression testing. The mechanical properties varied strongly with calcination temperature. Before calcination, magnesium oxychloride cement has a needle-like micromorphology and includes Mg(OH)2 gel and a trace amount of gel water as well as 5 Mg(OH)2·MgCl2·8H2O, which together provide its mechanical properties (flexural strength, 18.4 MPa; compressive strength, and 113.3 MPa). After calcination at 100 °C, the gel water is volatilised and the flexural strength is decreased by 57.07% but there is no significant change in the compressive strength. Calcination at 400 °C results in the magnesium oxychloride cement becoming fibrous and mainly consisting of Mg(OH)2 gel, which helps to maintain its high compressive strength (65.7 MPa). When the calcination temperature is 450 °C, the microstructure becomes powdery, the cement is mainly composed of MgO, and the flexural and compressive strengths are completely lost.

2022 ◽  
Melih Şahinöz ◽  
Hüseyin Yılmaz ARUNTAŞ ◽  
Metin GÜRÜ

Abstract This paper deals with the processing of polymer wood composite material from pine cone and the binder of phenol formaldehyde/PVAc/molasses and improvement of its properties. The production of pine cone based polymer binding and molasses added composite material, and the development of the non-flammability, insect attack and water resistance properties of this material has been studied in the research. To this end, pine cone, polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), phenol-formaldehyde, molasses, hemp fiber and waste colemanite have been used in the production of composite materials. It is aimed to produce a cheaper composite material less harmful to human health using plant based waste materials. According to the results of the flexural strength test conducted in the laboratory, the most suitable composite material producing parameters were detected as 0.25 filler/binder (f/b) ratio, 35% molasses ratio, 100°C molding pressure temperature, 49 kg/cm2 molding pressure, 240 µm mean particle size, 20 minutes for molding pressure time, 20% PF ratio and 0.5% hemp fiber ratio. It was determined that molasses could be used at a ratio of 35% for producing composite materials and, PF resin and hemp fiber samples provide the necessary water resistance. It was observed that the colemanite waste used in the mixture adds the nonflammability property to the composite material and decreases flexural strength and screw withdrawal strength.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 773
Tsz Ying Hui ◽  
Lorena Skevi ◽  
Bianca Reeksting ◽  
Susanne Gebhard ◽  
Kevin Paine

Despite being associated with lower carbon emissions, CEM II cementitious materials exhibit reduced early age strength compared to that of CEM I. Several studies have demonstrated early age strength improvements by incorporating bacterial cells in concrete. In this study, live vegetative bacteria and dead bacteria killed in two different ways were used to explore whether changes in strength are related to the bacteria’s viability or their surface morphology. Compressive and flexural strength tests were performed at mortars with and without bacteria for both CEM I and CEM II cement. Their microstructure, porosity and mineralogy were also examined. No net strength gain was recorded for either CEM I or CEM II bacterial mortars compared to non-bacterial controls, although changes in the porosity were reported. It is proposed that two phenomena, one causing strength-reduction and one causing strength-gain, took place in the bacterial specimens, simultaneously. It is suggested that each phenomenon is dependent on the alkalinity of the cement matrix, which differs between CEM I and CEM II mortars at early age. Nevertheless, in neither case could it be recommended that the addition of bacteria is an effective way of increasing the early age strength of mortars.

Niwut Juntavee ◽  
Apa Juntavee ◽  
Thipradi Phattharasophachai

Abstract Objective Different post-sintering processes are expected to be a reason for alteration in the strength of zirconia. This study evaluated the effect of post-sintering processes on the flexural strength of different types of monolithic zirconia. Materials and Methods A total of 120 classical- (Cz) and high-translucent (Hz) monolithic zirconia discs (1.2 mm thickness and 14 mm in Ø) were prepared, sintered, and randomly divided into four groups to be surface-treated with (1) as-glazed (AG); (2) finished and polished (FP); (3) finished, polished, and overglazed (FPOG); and (4) finished, polished, and heat-treated (FPHT) technique (n = 15). Biaxial flexural strength (σ) was determined on a piston-on-three ball in a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Analysis of variance, and post hoc Bonferroni multiple comparisons were determined for significant differences (α = 0.05). Weibull analysis was applied for survival probability, Weibull modulus (m), and characteristic strength (σ0). The microstructures were examined with a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Results The mean ± standard deviation value of σ (MPa), m, and σ0 were 1,626.43 ± 184.38, 9.51, and 1,709.79 for CzAG; 1,734.98 ± 136.15, 12.83, and 1,799.17 for CzFP; 1,636.92 ± 130.11, 14.66, and 1,697.63 for CzFPOG; and 1,590.78 ± 161.74, 10.13, and 1,663.82 for CzFPHT; 643.30 ± 118.59, 5.59, and 695.55 for HzAG; 671.52 ± 96.77, 3.28, and 782.61 for HzFP; 556.33 ± 122.85, 4.76, and 607.01 for HzFPOG; and 598.36 ± 57.96, 11.22, and 624.89 for HzFPHT. The σ was significantly affected by the post-sintering process and type of zirconia (p < 0.05), but not by their interactions (p > 0.05). The Cz indicated a significantly higher σ than Hz. The FP process significantly enhanced σ more than other treatment procedures. Conclusion Post-sintering processes enabled an alteration in σ of zirconia. FP enhanced σ, while FPOG and FPHT resulted in a reduction of σ. Glazing tends to induce defects at the glazing interface, while heat treatment induces a phase change to tetragonal, both resulted in reducing σ. Finishing and polishing for both Cz and Hz monolithic zirconia is recommended, while overglazed or heat-treated is not suggested.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (1) ◽  
pp. 397-412
Bassam Hamid Alaseel ◽  
Mohamed Ansari Mohamed Nainar ◽  
Noor Afeefah Nordin ◽  
Zainudin Yahya ◽  
Mohd Nazim Abdul Rahim

This study investigates the effect of water absorption on the flexural strength of kenaf/ glass/unsaturated polyester (UPE) hybrid composite solid round rods used for insulating material applications. Three volume fractions of kenaf/glass fibre 20:80 (KGPE20), 30:70 (KGPE30), and 40:60 (KGPE40) with three different fibre arrangement profiles of kenaf fibres were fabricated by using the pultrusion technique and were aimed at studying the effect of kenaf fibres arrangement profile and its content in hybrid composites. The fibre/ resin volume fraction was maintained constant at 60:40. The dispersion morphologies of tested specimens were observed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The findings were compared with pure glass fibre-reinforced UPE (control) composite. The water absorption results showed a clear indication of how it influenced the flexural strength of the hybrid and non-hybrid composites. The least affected sample was observed in the 30KGPE composite type, wherein the kenaf fibre was concentrated at the centre of a cross-section of the composite rod. The water absorption reduced the flexural strength by 7%, 40%, 24%, and 38% of glass/UPE (control), 20KGPE, 30KGPE, and 40KGPE composites, respectively. In randomly distributed composite types, the water absorption is directly proportional to the volume fraction of kenaf fibre. At the same time, flexural properties were inversely proportional to the volume fraction of kenaf fibres. Although the influence of water absorption on flexural strength is low, the flexural strength of pultruded hybrid composites was more influenced by the arrangement of kenaf fibre in each composite type than its fibre loading.

2022 ◽  
Qingkai Wang ◽  
Zhaoquan Li ◽  
Peng Lu ◽  
Yigang Xu ◽  
Zhijun Li

Abstract. A total of 25 flexural and 55 uniaxial compressive strength tests were conducted using landfast sea ice samples collected in the Prydz Bay. Three-point bending tests were performed at ice temperatures of −12 to −3 °C with force applied vertically to original ice surface, and compressive tests were performed at −3 °C with a strain-rate level of 10−6–10−2 s−1 in the directions vertical and horizontal to ice surface. Judging from crystal structure, the ice samples were divided into congelation ice, snow ice, and a mixture of the these two. The results of congelation ice showed that the flexural strength had a decreasing trend depending on porosity rather than brine volume, based on which a mathematical equation was established to estimate flexural strength. Both flexural strength and effective modulus increased with increasing platelet spacing. The uniaxial compressive strength increased and decreased with strain rate below and above the critical regime, respectively, which is 8.0 × 10−4–1.5 × 10−3 s−1 for vertically loaded samples and 2.0 × 10−3–3.0 × 10−3 s−1 for horizontally loaded samples. A drop off in compressive strength was shown with increasing sea ice porosity. Consequently, a model was developed to depict the combined effects of porosity and strain rate on compressive strength in both ductile and brittle regimes. The mechanical strength of mixed ice was lower than congelation ice, and that of snow ice was much weaker. To provide a safe guide for the transportation of goods on landfast sea ice in the Prydz Bay, the bearing capacity of the ice cover is estimated with the lower and upper envelopes of flexural strength and effective modulus, respectively, which turned out to be a function of sea ice porosity.

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