Flexural Strength
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Shubham Padmaker Thakur

Abstract: Several composite materials are being used in biomedical and dental field with their immense applications to repair and transform various organs in human body. Recent advances suggest that Hydroxyapatite is one of the most reliable and widely used inorganic composite in dentistry. Desirable applications of Hydroxyapatite are achieved by utilizing variety of hydroxyapatite and their composites. This study was conducted to evaluate the compressive & flexural strength. Cylindrical specimens (n=9) for compressive strength & rectangular shaped specimens (n=9) for flexural strength were made according to manufacturer’s recommendations. Dental composite is using quartz, silica, and alumina glass as filler for a long time. Taguchi optimization technique keeps the experimentation within limit giving valid product in the calculating of compressive and flexural strength optimization. The goal of the work is to detect the best combination of composite materials. Keywords: Hydroxyapatite, Compressive Strength, Flexural Strength, Taguchi’s optimization method.

Jiang Guo ◽  
Zhuoran Chen ◽  
Xiaojian Xu ◽  
Xu Li ◽  
Hu Liu ◽  

AbstractIn this work, the engineered polyaniline (PANI)/epoxy composites reinforced with PANI-M (physical mixture of PANI spheres and fibers) exhibit significantly enhanced electromagnetic wave absorption performance and mechanical property. Due to the synergistic effect of PANI fillers with different geometries, the reflection loss of 10.0 wt% PANI-M/epoxy could reach − 36.8 dB at 17.7 GHz. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties (including tensile strength, toughness, and flexural strength) of PANI/epoxy were systematically studied. Compared with pure epoxy, the tensile strength of epoxy with 2.0 wt% PANI-M was improved to 86.2 MPa. Moreover, the PANI spheres (PANI-S) and PANI fibers (PANI-F) were prepared by the chemical oxidation polymerization method and interface polymerization method, respectively. The characterizations including scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and X-ray diffraction were applied to analyze the morphology and chemical and crystal structures of PANI filler. This work could provide the guideline for the preparation of advanced engineered epoxy nanocomposites for electromagnetic wave pollution treatment. Graphical abstract

Solomon I. Adedokun ◽  
Mukaila A. Anifowose

Steel is produced from iron ore and purification of metal scrap, leading to manufacture of hundreds of tonnes of steel slag each year. This study investigated the optimum replacement of granite with Ife Iron and Steel Nigeria Limited (ISN) slag that produce maximum Compressive Strength (CS), Split Tensile Strength (STS) and Flexural Strength (FS) of concrete using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) from Design Expert Version 7.0. The outcome of the study showed that the optimum replacement of granite with ISN was 28.85% ISN at 0.47 W/C.

2022 ◽  
Melih Şahinöz ◽  
Hüseyin Yılmaz ARUNTAŞ ◽  
Metin GÜRÜ

Abstract This paper deals with the processing of polymer wood composite material from pine cone and the binder of phenol formaldehyde/PVAc/molasses and improvement of its properties. The production of pine cone based polymer binding and molasses added composite material, and the development of the non-flammability, insect attack and water resistance properties of this material has been studied in the research. To this end, pine cone, polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), phenol-formaldehyde, molasses, hemp fiber and waste colemanite have been used in the production of composite materials. It is aimed to produce a cheaper composite material less harmful to human health using plant based waste materials. According to the results of the flexural strength test conducted in the laboratory, the most suitable composite material producing parameters were detected as 0.25 filler/binder (f/b) ratio, 35% molasses ratio, 100°C molding pressure temperature, 49 kg/cm2 molding pressure, 240 µm mean particle size, 20 minutes for molding pressure time, 20% PF ratio and 0.5% hemp fiber ratio. It was determined that molasses could be used at a ratio of 35% for producing composite materials and, PF resin and hemp fiber samples provide the necessary water resistance. It was observed that the colemanite waste used in the mixture adds the nonflammability property to the composite material and decreases flexural strength and screw withdrawal strength.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 321-330
Shuna Chen ◽  
Hengzhong Fan ◽  
Yunfeng Su ◽  
Wensheng Li ◽  
Jicheng Li ◽  

AbstractCubic boron nitride (cBN) with high hardness, thermal conductivity, wear resistance, and chemical inertness has become the most promising abrasive and machining material. Due to the difficulty of fabricating pure cBN body, generally, some binders are incorporated among cBN particles to prepare polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PcBN). Hence, the binders play a critical factor to the performances of PcBN composites. In this study, the PcBN composites with three binder systems containing ceramic and metal phases were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) from 1400 to 1700 °C. The sintering behaviors and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Results show that the effect of binder formulas on mechanical properties mainly related to the compactness, mechanical performances, and thermal expansion coefficient of binder phases, which affect the carrying capacity of the composites and the bonding strength between binder phases and cBN particles. The PcBN composite with SiAlON phase as binder presented optimal flexural strength (465±29 MPa) and fracture toughness (5.62±0.37 MPa·m1/2), attributing to the synergistic effect similar to transgranular and intergranular fractures. Meanwhile, the excellent mechanical properties can be maintained a comparable level when the temperature even rises to 800 °C. Due to the weak bonding strength and high porosity, the PcBN composites with Al2O3-ZrO2(3Y) and Al-Ti binder systems exhibited inferior mechanical properties. The possible mechanisms to explain these results were also analyzed.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 542
Sujjaid Khan ◽  
Longbang Qing ◽  
Iftikhar Ahmad ◽  
Ru Mu ◽  
Mengdi Bi

Aligning steel fibers is an effective way to improve the mechanical properties of steel fiber cementitious composites (SFRC). In this study, the magnetic field method was used to prepare the aligned hooked-end steel fiber cementitious composites (ASFRC) and the fracture behavior was investigated. In order to achieve the alignment of steel fibers, the key parameters including the rheology of the mixture and magnetic induction of electromagnetic field were theoretically analyzed. The results showed that, compared with SFRC, the cracking load and the ultimate load of ASFRC were increased about 24–55% and 51–86%, respectively, depending on the fiber addition content. In addition, the flexural tensile strength and residual flexural strength of ASFRC were found to increase up to 105% and 100%, respectively. The orientation of steel fibers also has a significant effect on energy consumption. The fracture energy of ASFRC was 56–70% greater than SFRC and the reinforcement effect of hooked-end steel fiber was higher than straight steel fiber. The fibers in the fracture surface showed that not only was the number of fibers of ASFRC higher than that of SFRC, but also the orientation efficiency factor of ASFRC was superior to SFRC, which explains the improvement of fracture behavior of ASFRC.

2022 ◽  
pp. 095400832110673
Pei Wang ◽  
Aigang Pan ◽  
Liu Xia ◽  
Yitao Cao ◽  
Hongjie Zhang ◽  

As a rapidly developing additive manufacturing technology, fused deposition modeling (FDM) has become widespread in many industry fields. It can fabricate complicated geometries using filament of thermoplastic materials such as PP, polylactic acid, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, etc. However, poor mechanical properties of raw materials limit their application. Poly-ether-ether-ketone is a type of special engineering plastic with high performance, which could be further reinforced by adding carbon fibers (CFs). During FDM process, the mechanical properties of printed parts are largely subject to careful selection of process parameters. To improve the mechanical properties of PEEK and CF/PEEK 3D-printed parts, the effects of various process parameters including building orientation, raster angle, nozzle temperature, platform temperature, ambient temperature, printing speed, layer thickness, infill density, and number of printed parts on mechanical properties were investigated. The tensile fracture interfaces of printed parts were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to explain the influence mechanism of process parameters. In the single factor experiments, flat and on-edge specimens show the best tensile and flexural strength, respectively; the specimens with raster angle ±45° and 0° show the best tensile and flexural strength, respectively. When the nozzle temperature at 500°C, platform temperature at 200°C, ambient temperature at 150°C, printing speed is 20 mm/s, layer thickness is 0.2 mm, and infill density is 100%, the printed parts exhibit the best mechanical properties.

Niwut Juntavee ◽  
Apa Juntavee ◽  
Thipradi Phattharasophachai

Abstract Objective Different post-sintering processes are expected to be a reason for alteration in the strength of zirconia. This study evaluated the effect of post-sintering processes on the flexural strength of different types of monolithic zirconia. Materials and Methods A total of 120 classical- (Cz) and high-translucent (Hz) monolithic zirconia discs (1.2 mm thickness and 14 mm in Ø) were prepared, sintered, and randomly divided into four groups to be surface-treated with (1) as-glazed (AG); (2) finished and polished (FP); (3) finished, polished, and overglazed (FPOG); and (4) finished, polished, and heat-treated (FPHT) technique (n = 15). Biaxial flexural strength (σ) was determined on a piston-on-three ball in a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Analysis of variance, and post hoc Bonferroni multiple comparisons were determined for significant differences (α = 0.05). Weibull analysis was applied for survival probability, Weibull modulus (m), and characteristic strength (σ0). The microstructures were examined with a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Results The mean ± standard deviation value of σ (MPa), m, and σ0 were 1,626.43 ± 184.38, 9.51, and 1,709.79 for CzAG; 1,734.98 ± 136.15, 12.83, and 1,799.17 for CzFP; 1,636.92 ± 130.11, 14.66, and 1,697.63 for CzFPOG; and 1,590.78 ± 161.74, 10.13, and 1,663.82 for CzFPHT; 643.30 ± 118.59, 5.59, and 695.55 for HzAG; 671.52 ± 96.77, 3.28, and 782.61 for HzFP; 556.33 ± 122.85, 4.76, and 607.01 for HzFPOG; and 598.36 ± 57.96, 11.22, and 624.89 for HzFPHT. The σ was significantly affected by the post-sintering process and type of zirconia (p < 0.05), but not by their interactions (p > 0.05). The Cz indicated a significantly higher σ than Hz. The FP process significantly enhanced σ more than other treatment procedures. Conclusion Post-sintering processes enabled an alteration in σ of zirconia. FP enhanced σ, while FPOG and FPHT resulted in a reduction of σ. Glazing tends to induce defects at the glazing interface, while heat treatment induces a phase change to tetragonal, both resulted in reducing σ. Finishing and polishing for both Cz and Hz monolithic zirconia is recommended, while overglazed or heat-treated is not suggested.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 773
Tsz Ying Hui ◽  
Lorena Skevi ◽  
Bianca Reeksting ◽  
Susanne Gebhard ◽  
Kevin Paine

Despite being associated with lower carbon emissions, CEM II cementitious materials exhibit reduced early age strength compared to that of CEM I. Several studies have demonstrated early age strength improvements by incorporating bacterial cells in concrete. In this study, live vegetative bacteria and dead bacteria killed in two different ways were used to explore whether changes in strength are related to the bacteria’s viability or their surface morphology. Compressive and flexural strength tests were performed at mortars with and without bacteria for both CEM I and CEM II cement. Their microstructure, porosity and mineralogy were also examined. No net strength gain was recorded for either CEM I or CEM II bacterial mortars compared to non-bacterial controls, although changes in the porosity were reported. It is proposed that two phenomena, one causing strength-reduction and one causing strength-gain, took place in the bacterial specimens, simultaneously. It is suggested that each phenomenon is dependent on the alkalinity of the cement matrix, which differs between CEM I and CEM II mortars at early age. Nevertheless, in neither case could it be recommended that the addition of bacteria is an effective way of increasing the early age strength of mortars.

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