Developing World
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2021 ◽  
Vijay Yadav Tokala ◽  
Majeed Mohammed

2021 ◽  
Laura Derksen ◽  
Jason Theodore Kerwin ◽  
Natalia Ordaz Reynoso ◽  
Olivier Sterck

Health behaviors are plagued by self-control problems, and commitment devices are frequently proposed as a solution. We show that a simple alternative works even better: appointments. We randomly offer HIV testing appointments and financial commitment devices to high-risk men in Malawi. Appointments are much more effective than financial commitment devices, more than doubling testing rates. In contrast, most men who take up financial commitment devices lose their investments. Appointments address procrastination without the potential drawback of commitment failure, and also address limited memory problems. Appointments have the potential to increase demand for healthcare in the developing world.

2021 ◽  
Vol 429 ◽  
pp. 118018
Wilson Marques

Haruna Audu Tukurah

Abstract: A developing world like Africa inherited an educational system that laid high emphasis on what is known as the 3Rs (reading, writing, and arithmetic). This teaching/learning method was perhaps relevant then, due to the enlightenment gap that existed between learners and their instructors (Missionaries/Colonial masters). The 3Rs known as rote learning regurgitation of facts is teacher-centered that subjects learners to memorization of information for the expansion of knowledge. This learning principle mostly evaluate learners through the use of tests and examinations to ascertain their learning levels. However, as good as the 3Rs learning method is, it only prepares learners for job acquisition, not problem-solving. This paper will argue for a paradigm shift, to key in with the developed world like America and start wrestling with an educational curriculum that is learners focused; a curriculum that is concerned with the ‘how’ to think in learning than the ‘what to think.’ Urbanization, globalization, complex factories/technologies in this dispensation are calling for learning principles that can guide learners on how to move from learning assumptions to the application of daily realities of life using both the cognitive, affective and the psychomotor domains. The paper attempt to define the ‘how’ approach using. the perspective of applying critical thinking skills before drawing a conclusion. Keywords: Curriculum design, the 3Rs and the 4Cs, critical thinking, instructors and learners, reflective teaching.

Makio Yamada

The impact of imperialism on long-term development in the non-Western world was once a popular agenda of inquiry. After the modernization paradigm turned into despair for postcolonial economies, the notions of informal empire (Gallagher and Robinson, 1953) and dependency (Prebisch, 1950; Frank, 1967; Cardoso and Faletto, 1979) marked economists' discussions on underdevelopment in the non-Western world. The agenda, however, lost its momentum after the 1970s, when some Latin American and East Asian economies began growing and research interests and policy agendas shifted from blaming external constraints to identifying internal enablers (Haggard, 1990, 2018). The externalist scholarship became almost moribund thereafter, although its leitmotif was taken over by some Marxian scholarship such as the world-systems theory (Wallerstein, 1974) and its structuralist and anti-globalization offshoots – also partly reincarnated in the literature on the resource curse (Auty, 1993; Karl, 1997).

Nitin Dhochak ◽  
Sushil K. Kabra

2021 ◽  
pp. 001041402110375
Nita Rudra ◽  
Irfan Nooruddin ◽  
Niccolò W. Bonifai

This special issue explores why the globalization backlash is roiling rich industrialized countries. But why is the backlash less salient in developing ones? In this piece, we challenge scholars to consider why the backlash has not diffused widely to the developing world. We argue support for globalization depends on citizens’ expectations of future economic mobility. This is high in the early phases of globalization which encapsulates many developing economies. Since information about globalization’s effects is limited, observed mobility of some sustains optimism that the new economic order will allow everyone to prosper. Over time, unrealized expectations of mobility for less-skilled workers puncture this optimism. Such workers in rich countries are long past the honeymoon phase of globalization and confronting realities of stagnant incomes and job precarity. Barring visionary policies unlikely to emerge from today’s polarized politics, their discontent will soon be shared by their developing country counterparts, dooming future globalization.

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