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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (POPL) ◽  
pp. 1-28 ◽  
Ugo Dal Lago ◽  
Francesco Gavazzo

Graded modal types systems and coeffects are becoming a standard formalism to deal with context-dependent, usage-sensitive computations, especially when combined with computational effects. From a semantic perspective, effectful and coeffectful languages have been studied mostly by means of denotational semantics and almost nothing has been done from the point of view of relational reasoning. This gap in the literature is quite surprising, since many cornerstone results — such as non-interference , metric preservation , and proof irrelevance — on concrete coeffects are inherently relational. In this paper, we fill this gap by developing a general theory and calculus of program relations for higher-order languages with combined effects and coeffects. The relational calculus builds upon the novel notion of a corelator (or comonadic lax extension ) to handle coeffects relationally. Inside such a calculus, we define three notions of effectful and coeffectful program refinements: contextual approximation , logical preorder , and applicative similarity . These are the first operationally-based notions of program refinement (and, consequently, equivalence) for languages with combined effects and coeffects appearing in the literature. We show that the axiomatics of a corelator (together with the one of a relator) is precisely what is needed to prove all the aforementioned program refinements to be precongruences, this way obtaining compositional relational techniques for reasoning about combined effects and coeffects.

رابعة بنت محمد بن مانع الصقرية ◽  
ثرياء بنت سليمان بن حمد الشبيبية

The study aimed to explore the challenges of using educational platforms and proposals to address them from the point of view of the third-year students at Al-Sharqiya University. The descriptive approach was used on a sample of the third-year students at Al-Sharqiya University in the specialization of the first field, consisting of (100) students. The study tool consisted of a two-axis questionnaire to identify the challenges of Use of educational platforms and proposals to address them. The study concluded that among the main challenges of students' use of educational platforms are weak Internet networks and their lack of coverage in some places, some students not having their own computers, and the lack of technical support when needed. The results showed that among the proposals to address the challenges are the following: Strengthening internet networks in some areas and making them available for free for educational purposes, and providing personal computers for students who need them at subsidized prices and an easy payment method, in addition to providing the necessary technical support through the establishment of a special platform that includes answering questions directly, as well as educating students about the harms of staying long hours in front of electronic devices. The results of this study were discussed in the light of latest reviewed literature followed by recommendations and suggestions for future studies and investigations.

بيان عايد الغراغير

The study aimed to identify the effectiveness of the use of blended learning in developing self-organized learning skills for basic stage students from the perspective of English language teachers. A teacher and a teacher were chosen randomly. The results showed the reality of education about the effectiveness of using blended learning in developing self-organized learning skills among primary school students from the perspective of English language teachers. They are also keen on the basic stage because of its great role in refining the students’ personality and thought, in addition to the ease of electronic communication with students at any time, especially at this time and the developments in the region. In light of the findings of the study, it recommends conducting more educational studies on blended education and a role in the self-organized learning process in terms of its dimensions and applications in educational institutions and other institutions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Leire Ortega ◽  
Jessica Quesada ◽  
Antonio Ruiz ◽  
María Magnolia Conde-Felipe ◽  
Otilia Ferrer ◽  

Abstract Background Due to increased anthelmintic resistance, alternative methods to drugs are necessary to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). Some of the most promising alternatives are based on the immune response of the host, such as the selection of genetically resistant breeds or the use of vaccines against these parasites. Given the limited information available on the immune response against GINs in goats, this study investigated the local immune response of goat kids of an indigenous Canary Islands breed (Majorera breed) experimentally infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta, one of the most pathogenic and prevalent GIN species. Methods For this purpose, the relationship between different parasitological (number of mature and immature worms, worm length, and number of intrauterine eggs) and immunological parameters at the local level (related to both the humoral and cellular immune response) was analyzed at early (1 week post-infection [wpi]) and late (8 wpi) stages of infection. Results Primary infection of goat kids with T. circumcincta infective larvae (L3) generated a complex immune response that could be defined as Th2 type, characterized by increased infiltration in abomasal tissues of several effector cells as well as a progressive presence of specific antibodies against parasitic antigens in the gastric mucus. Cellular responses were evidenced from 1 wpi onward, showing an increase in antigen-presenting cells and various lymphocyte subsets in the gastric mucosa. Conclusions The complexity of the host response was evidenced by statistically significant changes in the number of all these subpopulations (MHCII+, CD4+, CD8+, γδ+, CD45R+, IgA+, and IgG+), as well as in the evolution of the relative cytokine gene expression. From a functional point of view, negative associations were observed between the number of most of the immune cells (CD4, IgA, IgG, and CD45R cells) and parameters that could be related to the fecundity of worms, a phenomenon that was especially evident when the number of IgG and CD45R cells or the specific IgA levels of the gastric mucus were compared with parasitological parameters such as the female worm length or fecal egg counts at 8 wpi. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 225-229
A. Batyraliev ◽  
D. Tashmatova ◽  
Zh. Abdullaeva

Research relevance: understanding of teaching concept related to main function of а teacher in teaching and educating students. In the learning process, teacher should pay special attention to students’ cognitive activity development and try to use it more in learning process, using innovative technologies and interactive methods. Research objectives: consider issues from the concept of teaching, “learning” and “competence” and their essence, to reveal the importance of the competence-based approach in teaching. Research materials and methods: article analyzes essence of learning process and authors give their point of view. Research results: educational process essence and importance of learning based on modern competencies revealed. Conclusions: learning competence includes set of a student’s educational achievements, expressed by level of basic and subject competence at a certain stage in educational process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Samiaa Hamdy Sadek ◽  
Maha Mohamed El-kholy ◽  
Fareda Ahmed Mohammed ◽  
Reham Mohammed El-Morshedy

Abstract Background Poorly controlled bronchial asthma limits patients’ quality of life (QOL), the condition which may potentiate the development of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was the assessment of anxiety and depression in bronchial asthma patients, and their interrelation with both level of asthma control and quality of life in our society. Results This study included 102 bronchial asthma patients, and 50 healthy control individuals. Patients had poorer QOL, and higher anxiety and depression scores compared to healthy control, moreover these scores were higher in uncontrolled asthma patients compared to controlled group. Poor QOL, frequent hospital admissions, and poor asthma control were the predictors for psychiatric disorders. Conclusion Depression and anxiety are frequently encountered in patients with bronchial asthma in our society; poor symptom control, poor QOL, and frequent hospital admissions are the main predictors for these psychiatric disorders.

أنس عدنان عضيبات ◽  
مشاعل محمد الرياحنة

The study aimed to identify the trends of primary stage laborers towards e-learning in teaching the Arabic language, and the obstacles they face from their point of view. The study relied on the descriptive and analytical approach, and the study population consisted of (170) male and female teachers working in public schools in Jerash governorate. The study sample (75) male and female teachers, who were chosen randomly. The results of the study showed that the attitudes of primary school teachers towards e-learning came at a positive level, with an arithmetic average (3.61), and the obstacles facing primary school teachers in e-learning came with a high degree, with an arithmetic average (3.84). The study recommended giving attention to providing electronic learning tools to include all schools, connecting all schools to the Internet and providing computers in proportion to the number of students in schools, and the study also recommended the necessity of dissolving all obstacles in e-learning, in terms of providing Internet labs in schools in proportion to the number of students and courses Scholastic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
جيران ، حمد علي هارب

This research discusses the significance of the underlying and corresponding (B) in the verse of ablution .It consists of a preface , four chapters and a termination .Within the limits of the preface , it dealt with the clarification of the importance of the research .In the first chapter , it dealt with the definition of the underlying significance according to the jurists point of view , also the scientists, point of view who support the underlying significance and the people who agree with them , as well as the aspects of the Hanafia’s and the shafia's inference regarding the implication.   The research also deals with the definition of the corresponding significance according to the jurists' point of view as well as the scientists' point of view who support the correspondence of the (B) significance .These people are the Malikia and the Hanablah and the people who agree with them as well as the aspects of their inference in this issue .The third chapter tackles the more acceptable significance of the two discussed in the former chapters .The final one clarifies the impact of the difference between the underlying and the corresponding (B) according to the jurists' point of view .Finally the research is concluded by the most important deductions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 204141962110654
Tan-Trung Bui ◽  
Dhafar Al Galib ◽  
Abdelkrim Bennani ◽  
Ali Limam

The collapse of tubes under axial load is an important subject from the safety point of view, particularly in the design of energy absorbing devices used in many engineering applications. In this study, quasi-static and dynamic experiments were carried out on square thin-walled aluminum extrusions to investigate the effects of circular holes. Cutouts were introduced in the four corners of the square-section tube, not far from the end boundary of the tube, in order both to decrease the first peak load on the load-displacement characteristic and to control the collapse mode. Different aspects, such as the buckling modes and the energy absorption in quasi-static axial crushing tests, as well as dynamic effects and material rheology contributions in dynamic crushing tests, have been examined. For the dynamic tests, the parameters were the impacting mass and its velocity. The results showed a drop in the first peak function of the openings’ radius and the tube’s energy absorption capacity was kept. A comparison between static and dynamic tests results was carried out and the interpretation of the results in terms of deformation mechanism and energy absorption was discussed. Numerical simulations with the finite element code ABAQUS were conducted to confirm the experimental findings. The results of different numerical models, implicit and explicit calculations, that contribute to a basic understanding of the buckling and prediction of the crash behavior of the aluminum components without and with the cutouts are presented.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 81-85
B. Asadova

Stress factors limit the development of living organisms, especially plants, and reduce their productivity. In this regard, the study of the effects of stress factors on plants and the discovery of adaptation mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of stress in the cell. From a biological point of view, stress is considered to be any change in the external environment that impairs the normal development of the plant or changes it in a negative direction. Stresses cause changes in the physiological activity of plants, weaken the process of biosynthesis in the cell, disrupt normal life and ultimately can cause plant death.

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