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Purpose This study aims to examine how innovation can be accelerated within the New Zealand (NZ) building industry to improve the productivity and efficiency of the industry. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted a mixed philosophical approach combining interpretivism and post-positivism. Data for the study were obtained through a focus group of 50 practitioners that were selected using a stratified sampling procedure. All focus group data were audio-recorded, notes of the discussions were taken and then transcribed, de-identified and managed using NVivo software. Data analysis was undertaken using thematic analysis and inductive reasoning consistent with interpretative phenomenological analysis. Findings The study findings revealed that the industry could benefit from the adoption of new and emerging technologies to improve its performance, especially its productivity and efficiency. Key drivers for the adoption of innovative practices included the adaptation of “local best practices” from case studies that would consist of stories of successful innovations that could foster confidence in future innovation. It was also identified that Government and industry should nurture innovation through collaborative contracts, policies and regulations. Further, it was highlighted that a culture of innovation needed to be developed to help nurture competencies and capability within the industry workforce. Research limitations/implications This study provides an in-depth examination of the need for innovation from the point of view of building industry practitioners. This study provides a useful starting-off point for further research and for the creation of policies that could help to support and accelerate innovation within the NZ building industry. Practical implications NZ’s building industry productivity and efficiency have been sub-optimal relative to other industries. But using evidence from the experiences and knowledge of industry practitioners, strategies can be developed to accelerate innovation within the NZ building industry that could help reverse industry performance. Further, the research findings can help inform government policies to develop support mechanisms that could encourage innovation in the industry in NZ. In addition, it is anticipated that the findings will provide a useful set of guidance for other countries that have similar market and physical constraints as those encountered by NZ. Originality/value There is a dearth of empirical studies on innovation in the NZ building industry which the current study contributes to. By sharing industry practitioners’ experiences and knowledge of innovation, the paper seeks to counteract more technocratic and technological optimist accounts of innovation within the building industry. Further, the paper provides insights into how the NZ building industry can transform its performance through innovation.
In Islamic law of Business rules, there is a terminology of “Muqassah”, which in Arabic etymology means, Debt settlement by a contra transaction when someone is indebted to a person and this person in the same time is indebted to the first one of the similar amounts of money. In terminology point of view, Muqassah means the discharge of a debt receivable against a debt payable or. Thus, muqassah is one of the ways to pay someone’s debt. New forms of Muqassah have been introduced in the modern Islamic banking system. It has turned into a complexed system after the emergence of modern technology. Therefore, there is a great need to discuss the modern application of the rules of set-off already set forth by Shariah to modern financial transaction. These modern applications include set-off between customer and financial institution and also between tow financial institutions through cheque and sometimes through clearing house. This sett-off may take place through national and international networking system. This article proceeds with an introduction of the term “Muqassah” and other related terms. It further discusses the classification, conditions and shariah ruling of each type of “Muqassah” (Set off). The article ends with conclusion of this discussion about set-off.
The tax system of Ukraine in the way in which it now operates, in terms of performance does not meet the conditions of modern tax systems of the world's leading countries. Proof of this is 84th place in the ranking of competitiveness and 23rd place in the ranking of the Top 25 countries with the highest level of taxation. Therefore, harmonization of the tax system is needed to simplify tax treatment and reduce the tax burden or average it in order to reduce the prices of goods production means. It is noteworthy that harmonization is now considered primarily as the harmonization of the standards of the tax systems of different countries in the framework of cooperation and the achievement of mutual positive effects. However, each state has its own economic traits and national traditions, which are reflected in the functioning of taxes. Therefore, harmonization, as a phenomenon of an economic nature, is quite applicable within a particular tax system. Among plenty of factors influencing the operating of the tax system, a group of behavioral aspects is relatively new for the native economic environment. They are based on the habits, traditions and culture of the population, public consciousness and the level of psychological and social tension in society. Although it is notable that behavioral factors arise and worsen under the influence of other groups of parameters. And one of these is the level of fiscalization of the economy and its basis - the tax system. The high level of fiscalization of the tax system has formed a negative attitude of taxpayers to taxation, which has intensified the shadow trends in the state economy. The inconsistency between the amounts of taxes paid and the quality and amount of services and benefits received from the state, as well as the low level of social guarantees, caused a general cognitive dissonance. Transformed into a prejudice, he acquired a national social character, forming a model of economic behavior that in fact denies the defining role of the state in the life of the modern individual. Therefore, it should be emphasized that the harmonious functioning of the tax system should be based on a comprehensive approach, taking into account various factors. And from this point of view, behavioral finance becomes a factor of core and direct influence.
Effect of different cooking methods on chemical composition, nutritional values, and sensory properties of Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) tempe
Having high protein content, jack bean is a promising resource for making tempe, a traditional fermented food commonly consumed in Indonesia. The current research aimed to investigate the effect of different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, frying, and baking) on a chemical, nutritional, and sensory aspects of jack bean tempe. The results showed that the highest protein content and antioxidant activity of the processed tempe were obtained by steaming method with a value of 380.3 g/kg and 57.8%, respectively. The steaming process could maintain protein and mineral contents as well as the antioxidant activity. The boiled tempe had six time lower of phytic acid compared to that of control. The baking and frying process increased five to six-fold of the fat content, while reduced the protein content by 30%. For the sensory evaluation, the baked tempe obtained the highest score. In conclusion, from a nutritional point of view, steaming is the best method for cooking jack bean tempe, while in term of sensory, baking is recommended.
Introduction The scope of paramedic practice is being redefined and expanded. Professional development and clinical expertise are not only necessary for paramedics to perform their clinical functions and operational responsibilities, they are at the very core of their professionalisation. Professionalisation is a complex process, and the degree to which it can accomplished will impact society’s perception of the profession – and its trust in it – for years to come. This study investigated ways to enhance professional practice, from the point of view of the main healthcare providers in a rural area of Ontario, Canada. Methods A qualitative analysis informed by action research methodology was used. The research design was staged and consisted of focus groups and a World Café. The data were coded and organised into themes, using thematic analysis, and were triangulated with the literature. Results Three key themes emerged from the World Café and focus group conversations including current enablers of professionalisation; system components that promote professionalism; and community of practice to support professional development and clinical expertise. Conclusion Paramedic practice is evolving. This should be reflected in clinical practice and education, and more paramedic-led research. Paramedic training may need to move from the college to the university environment to reflect equal standing with colleagues in the broader healthcare system. This study shows strong motivation among paramedics and management to enhance professional practice and professionalism. To achieve this, a culture of trust, developing engagement and communication strategies and establishing a community of practice are crucial.
Theoretical aspects of innovation theory and its categorical apparatus are considered in the article. Development of ideas about the place and importance of innovation in the spread of innovative theories and approaches to the categories of "innovation" and "innovative development" are analyzed. Own reasoning is presented and own definition of investigated terms that based on the analysis is given. Knowing of theoretical essentials of innovations will enable to create an effective system of management of innovation processes at the enterprise. From this point of view it is expedient to consider the definitions of innovations and their classification. In given article, an author reveals the notions of innovation and innovation process that exist in economic literature by now, considers existing classifications of innovations. An author also gives his own classification of innovations, reveals his understanding of notion of innovation. Currently, the term "innovation" is found everywhere. It has become especially widespread in the sphere of production, although it is not limited to it and applies to almost all areas of human activity. The world and domestic economy form a new paradigm of development, which is based on the growing relationship between socio-economic development of society and new technologies, the global nature of the creation and use of research and development. The creation and implementation of innovations becomes the main internal factor and the key to uture economic growth. As world experience shows, the successful use of scientific and technological progress can significantly affect the course of economic processes and significantly accelerate them. The term "innovative development" consists of two categories – "innovation" and "development". As they are widely used in almost all fields of knowledge and areas of activity, they do not have an unambiguous definition and are the subject of research by domestic and foreign scientists of various profiles.
This study aims to determine the role of journalists in socializing money waqf. This study use qualitative research. The role of journalism is a certain set of behaviors caused by a journalist (journalist) who collects, manages, writes, edits data, so as to produce information or news, whose information is about daily events, periodically using existing mass media facilities. In role theory explains that the role is a point of view insociologyandsocial psychology which assumes that most daily activities are carried out by socially defined categories. Journalism plays an important role in disseminating messages or news to the public with the aim of disseminating something that is considered important to the community. The role of journalism in disseminating cash waqf to the public is as follows:agents of reform, social control tools, public educators, information providers, broadening horizons of thought, focusing attention, fostering aspirations, creating a constructive atmosphere, acting as a bridge, being able to recognize social norms, being able to cultivate tastes andable to change a weak attitude into a stronger attitude.
Selection of third party reverses logistic providers: an approach of BCF-CRITIC-MULTIMOORA using Archimedean power aggregation operators
AbstractOne of the most powerful tools to operate imprecision is bipolar complex fuzzy sets (BCFSs), which is an enlargement of bipolar fuzzy sets (BFSs) as well as complex fuzzy sets (CFSs). This paper deals with an integrated MULTIMOORA (multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis plus full multiplicative form) framework as a generalization of fuzzy MULTIMOORA procedure to assess the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems with BCFSs. We develop BCF-Archimedean power weighted (ordered weighted) arithmetic and geometric aggregation operators (AOs) and discuss their properties from this point of view. The proposed Archimedean power-weighted AOs can eliminate the influence of extreme evaluating criteria values from some biased experts with different preference attitudes under the BCF setting. Afterward, we put forward an integrated MULTIMOORA algorithm based on the proposed AOs, where criteria weights are estimated using the CRITIC (criteria importance through inter-criteria correlation) method, which is a well-known objective weighting method based on aggregated score values of options, intensity contrast of every criteria and conflict among attributes. In the proposed methodology, criteria values are aggregated based on the MULTIMOORA method that involves three sub-methods: the ‘ratio system’, the ‘reference point’ and the ‘full multiplicative form’ and thus takes less computational time, minimum mathematical evaluations and bears good stability. In the following, third-party reverse logistics providers' (3PRLP) selection problem is brought into consideration to manifest the sufficiency of the developed methodology. At the end of this study, we draw attention to a comparison between the proposed decision-making approach with the corresponding BCF-CRITIC-TOPSIS and BCF-CRITIC-WASPAS methods.
The article presents a model of connection of ETCS application and classical base layer equipment. The model distinguishes three layers: physical, logic and data, which require different modelling techniques and at the same time must be consistent. The model will form the basis for the digital mapping in the Digital Twin of the ETCS application. Layer division is a natural way to represent the structure of a device and its operating rules. It allows a detailed and structured representation of the interfaces of a connection and then an analysis of the connection both with respect to the layer of interest and from the point of view of the interaction between features in the different layers. The S-interface of the LEU encoder of the ETCS is described, taking into account different solutions encountered in practice. The conditions of the connection between the LEU encoder and the environment form a description of one of the two boundaries between the ETCS application, i.e. the implemented ERTMS/ETCS on a specific area of the railway network, and the environment. A general connection model and definitions of a connection and an interface are presented. As an example, the electrical connection with signals transmitted through galvanic connections has been assumed to be typical for LEU encoder and track-side signalling control circuits found in base layer equipment. The physical layer is described in terms of physical parameters and their values. The parameters are divided into electrical (current, voltage and frequency) and mechanical ones (number of leads, conductor thickness, etc.). The values of the electrical parameters are expressed in terms of a uncountable set with defined limits. The logic layer was described in a vector-matrix form. Logic signals are assigned to electrical signals with specific physical parameters. The data layer contains information about the assignment of specific telegrams to specific electrical signals.
INTRA-PARTY STRUGGLE OF THE POLITICAL ELITE FOR AUTHORITATIVE POWERS IN THE SOVIET STATE IN 1917–1920
The article examines the activities of three political institutions (the Council of People’s Commissars, the Politburo, the Secretariat of the Central Committee) of the Soviet state from the point of view of their superiority in the political arena at the time of the initial formation of a new one-party state. As a result of various transformations by the end of the 1920s, the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of the Bolsheviks began to play a special role in the power structures. The relationship between the members and candidates for membership of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the AUCP(b) gradually begins to depend on the position of the General Secretary I.V. Stalin (since 1922). He begins to acquire the functions of a judge in various disputable situations that periodically arose between the opposing ideological associations of the above-mentioned state decision-making body, the nature of outgoing documents that appear in the business correspondence of the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party is also transformed, and the factor of the informal system of making key decisions acquires a particular importance. As a result of such transformations, only a part of the approved decisions is recorded in the resolutions of the Political Bureau, while the preliminary work on their implementation is generally not taken into account anywhere. The Secretariat of the Bolshevik Party at the very beginning of its existence was generally conceived as an absolutely technical body, a kind of bureau of typists-secretaries, who would prepare on paper the printed texts of the decisions made by the Politburo of the Central Committee of the AUCP(b). The Secretariat of the Central Committee in no way meant a body for making economic, administrative, industrial, personnel, and no less political decisions. Elevation of this unsophisticated organ above other state and party organs is largely due to I.V. Stalin, who managed to redirect the documentation flow of the Soviet state through his department.